Wednesday, July 31, 2019

Sedalia Engine Plant Case Study Review

We have reviewed your case at Sedalia Engine Plant and believe we have found a plan that fits your needs. We believe that while your company surely holds a lot of promise, we have a few ideas to we would like to recommend to you and perhaps take into consideration. We have your best interests at hand and only serve in helping you in bettering your company and becoming more efficient. By the means of what is known as lean production, you can continue to preserve the value in your product while increasing efficiency in the production process, making your employees happier resulting in more productivity and quality control, and hoping to save your company time and money in the long run while not costing your employees, products or consumers anything, all of which are good things. You state that employees are starting to feel powerless and feel like they are unable to do tasks that would benefit the company. While you have implemented a program to address this, you indicate it is not working. One important principle of lean production is leveling out the workload. We recommend spreading the work load among all employees. If the work load is level across the board, employees will feel useful and not feel as though they have wasted efforts. Feeling like a part of a team and feeling equal amongst your work peers creates for greater solidarity and an increased chance for greater work quality, resulting in product quality. Adding standardized tasks is also the foundation for continuous improvement and employee empowerment. Employees themselves should be passionate about the company and work together for one goal. These people should be in agreement with your companies’ philosophy. Those you elect to be team leaders or managers should be equipped for the position. They should thoroughly understand every aspect of the company and also be trained in being team leaders, while at the same time understanding the teaching methods of the company. Building strong leaders to help lead and keep teams working together is essential for the well-being of your company. As mentioned prior, giving each employee a fair amount of the work will help with their morale, and providing strong leaders equipped with good leadership skills to direct their equal efforts makes for an outstanding system. Concerning the Board of Representatives, Board of Employees, and Human Resources, these teams will need to work in tandem to be effective. These three teams should be making decisions together, and rapidly implementing the unanimous decision. These decisions should focus on the long-term picture, not the short-term picture, even if sacrifices will need to be made. The Board of Representatives should constantly be watching with their own eyes to ensure production is being carried out in a proper manner. The Board of Employees should be concerned with making employee tasks standardized, and work to continuously improve the level of standardization. With standardized tasks and work evenly spread across employees, employees will feel empowered to succeed. To avoid wasting time and resources, the focus should be on building quality first, rather than worrying about fixing problems later. Your company should only be using reliable, thoroughly tested technology that serves your people and processes. You should also provide visual controls so no problems are hidden. Remember, quality is â€Å"key†. In regards to the issue pertaining to wage differentials and job security, a good way of going about handling that is to compromise with the workers. Also if you use the steps for searching for integrative solutions, that would help as well. The first step would be to separate the people from the problem. I know that wages and job security directly affect the employees, but it is best if you take away the employees from the issue and really find out the company issues with differing wages. The second step would be to focus on the shared interest of all the parties. As for the plant, you would naturally want to do what is in the best interest of the company, but if you are really trying to resolve and compromise the issue you would need to look at the issue from an employee point of view. The next step, and one of the biggest ones, is to generate options. It is good to not just come up with one solution to the job security issue, but to also formulate many options that can be used to solve that problem. I suggest layout a plan that employees were to follow and if they didn’t, that would put their wages and job security at risk. The fourth step in the breakdown would be evaluation. It is best to evaluate the options using objective criteria. This step simply means to thoroughly look over options and have a certain criteria to follow for the options to be of any relevance to the problem. The last step would be to iteration. There is not a, onetime, perfect option for every problem. The best way to go about this is to keep trying. If one solution doesn’t fully solve the wage issues at the plant, than keep trying other plans. It was mentioned that POT is still functioning, but an Organizational Review Group (ORG) was established to discuss plant guidelines along with Exempt and Non-exempt Task Force Groups (NEIG & EITG). In response to employee criticism and the potential for negative publicity, the board of trustees made a decision to establish a â€Å"Task Force on the Work/Family Interface. The mission of the Task Force was to make recommendations on possible additions and modifications to company policies and programs that will better accommodate the family responsibilities of its employees. Members of this Task Force included: company executives, exempt and non-exempt employees, and members of the board of trustees. The Task Force can make recommendations in a large number of areas including health insurance coverage, absence with pay, leave without pay, sick leave, promotion criteria and policies, training programs, family leave, job sharing, flextime and child care. I believe task forces are an improvement on past practices, but I also do believe there could be another option as well Your decision-making processes should be based on a long-term philosophy of proving good services and products, even at the expense of short-term financial goals. While profit is important and essential, a high one means nothing if your employees aren’t happy, resulting in your products not having as much quality, resulting in unsatisfied customers. This rips everyone off in the end. High morale and work ethic is core, as previously stated. Bringing back building a philosophy within the minds and work ethic of team leaders and employees, it trickles down into the product itself and reassures that your company stands for something great and admirable, not simply another big name making lots of money. It is probably very important for you to hold a high morale and solid reputation, and with these key ideals and systems, that is very much possible. We thank you for your time and hope you to take our recommendations into deep consideration. We feel these decisions would be wise for the lasting future and quality of your products, people and proficiency.

Gary B. Nash’s Race and Revolution Essay

Gary B. Nash’s Race and Revolution offers an insightful interpretation of the American Revolution which led to the abolishment of slavery in the United States. The book is formed as a group of essays that had sprung from a series of lectures. The text focuses on the failure of the American Revolution to accomplish its initial goals and to do justice to the oppressed race. Nash’s thesis in this book is thus that this failure should be blamed actually on the northern leaders rather than the southern ones. The book peers therefore into the general atmosphere of the Revolution and into the main causes of the failure to fully recognize the African Americans as an equal race. In Nash’s view, the hypothesis according to which this failure should be blamed on the inflexibility of the Southerners is not a correct interpretation of the events. Instead, the decline of the initial enthusiasm that inspired the abolitionist movement should be blamed on the growing sense of superiority that prevailed among the Northern leaders. Thus, Nash’s main purpose is to show that the evolution of events during the American Revolution best evinces the relationship between the two diverging races. As the author stresses, the failure to give the blacks true independence and equal rights at that time is not due to the triumph of economic interest over humaneness, but rather to the growing supremacist tendencies of the whites. To demonstrate this hypothesis, Nash organizes his work in three chapters which correspond to the three different stages of abolitionism. Moreover, the book is supplemented and supported with a series of documents which are also separated according to each of these stages. As Nash proposes, the first stage of the abolitionist movement was one of spreading enthusiasm with regard to the abolition of slavery. During the early 1770’s, there was a growing awareness among the colonies of New England with regard to the incompatibility of slavery as an institution with the main precepts and fundaments of the American nation and of democracy. Around this time, the leaders as well as the public at large began to regard the problem of slavery from a new angle, realizing that this practice was in stark contradiction with the basic human rights. There was therefore a sense of duplicity of falsity underlying the main principles of the democratic nation. As Nash emphasizes, the idea of abolition was first embraced with great enthusiasm by a majority of the colonists. As the title of the chapter reads, this generation can be called â€Å"the revolutionary generation†, precisely because it formed and sustained a new idea with regard to slavery. The first wave of the revolution seemed to grasp the problem of slavery in its entirety. The leaders as well as the common people began to gain insight into the atrocities perpetuated by slavery. The just observation was made that the existence of slavery in America was a real opprobrium for the country and its status among the other countries of the world. The Americans began to perceive the necessity of reform and abolition of slavery. The institution of slavery began to be considered as a sign of the lack of civilization and advancement on the part of the country. As Nash points out, at this time, awareness grew towards the series of moral, religious and social justifications for the abolition of slavery. In the first place, slavery was considered a debasing institution that functioned at the center of a democratic nation. Thus, many people began to see slavery as a plight on modern society that reminds of the admitted abuse on people that should have had equal rights. Nash documents his research into the atmosphere of the time, emphasizing that the problem of slavery was increasingly debated in all circles, at the beginning of the 1770’s: â€Å"In 1773 [†¦] Benjamin Rush informed Granville Sharp, the English abolitionist, that ‘the spirit of liberty and religion with regard to the poor Negroes spreads rapidly throughout this country. †(Nash, 2001, p. 9) The people felt that the abolition will be almost a salvation of the nation and it will offer a new beginning for America. Generally, slavery began to be perceived as a sin and a plight on the modern world. As Nash observes, the revolution was prompted by the spread of this idea among the communities:â€Å"As Winthrop Jordan has argued, by the eve of the Revolution, there was in New England a ‘generalized sense of slavery as a communal sin. ’†(Nash, 2001, p. 10) Thus, in the first part of his essay, Nash lingers on the incipient enthusiasm for abolitionism at the beginning of the Revolution. There were voices that called for the immediate prohibition of slave trade and that proposed laws and declarations against slavery. The principles of democracy were being thus restated, as the most pertinent argument for the abolition of slavery: â€Å"all men are born equally free and independent, and that they have certain natural, inherited and inalienable rights. †(Nash, 2001, p. 13) Slavery was also seen as a breach in the country’s international role. America was not completing its role as a model democracy that the rest of the world should look upon, but on the contrary it was drawing attention towards the cruel and extremely unjust practices of slavery: â€Å"Calling slavery ‘the opprobrium of America’ they proposed a gradual emancipation that would regain Americans ‘the respect of all Europe, who are astonished to see a people eager for Liberty holding Negroes in Bondage. †(Nash, 2001, p. 13) Therefore, Nash carefully analyzes in his first essay the various reasons that prompted and accelerated the movement. There were political, religious and moral issues that condemned slavery at the same time and imposed a movement against it. There were also leaders that observed that slavery was a flawed institution from the start, since it actually permitted a crime and an infringement on the rights of other man. According to Nash, this was seen as a political fallacy, as it encouraged the existence of a system that was yet worse than the aristocratic model in England for instance, that America wanted to avoid the most: â€Å"And with what execration should the statesman be loaded, who permitting one half of the citizens thus to trample on the rights of the other, transforms those into despots, and these into enemies, destroys the moral of one part and the amor patriae of the other. †(Nash, 17) The data that Nash collects together for the first part of his essay prepare the terrain for the rest of the research. The author thus achieves an almost dramatic effect by pointing not only to the actual facts and events but to the atmosphere of the time and to the general opinion on slavery and the revolution. According to Nash, after having shown the early anxiousness and the enthusiasm of the people for the revolution, it seems even more difficult to explain the eventual failure of the revolution. His second essay in the book treats therefore of the second or middle stage of abolitionism. Nash emphasizes the fact that, contrary to customary belief, it was the northern states that had the greatest contribution to this failure: â€Å"In particular, I wish to stress the role of the northern states in the failure to abolish slavery and to show how economic and cultural factors intertwined in what was not a judicious decision by the leaders of the new American nation but their most tragic failure. †(Nash, 2001, p. 6) Nash points out that this was perhaps the most tragic failure in the American system, and one that has left a permanent blemish on the nation. The second chapter therefore begins with the main questions that become immediate after analyzing the initial enthusiasm and the eventual failure. Nash explains that he diverges from the common view according to which the newly formed union of states was too young to be able to act correctly from a political or social point of view. Moreover, he also insists that the Southerner’s self-interested opposition was not the halt of the abolitionists: â€Å"In explaining the failure of the new nation to come to grips with slavery, historians have repeatedly pointed to the precariousness of the newly forged union of the states and the intransigence of the lower South, particularly Georgia and South Carolina, in thwarting the widespread desire of those in the North and upper South to see the traffic of slaves ended for ever and the institution of slavery on the road to extinction. †(Nash, 2001, p. 25) Nash comes here close to the center of his demonstration throughout the book. His main idea is that the failure should not be blamed on the contention between the North and the South. The southerners were indeed guided by their economical interests in preserving slavery as an institution. The slave owners and the slave traders were equally unwilling to part with the profitable system of slavery. In Nash’s view however, neither of these motivations were actually the reason for the failure. He proposes and demonstrates therefore that the failure came from a national ideological handicap rather than from a regional one. In his view, the failure should actually be attributed to the Northerners that failed to carry the democratic principles to their ends. Thus, Nash provides an explanation for the gap between the initial elation with respect to abolitionism and the subsequent hostility of the white people against the black. Nash perceives this hostility that emerged powerfully after the revolution, as an inherent supremacist attitude and racism. While slavery was in itself a cruel and even barbaric practice that deprived the other race of freedom and dignity, the hostility that followed the liberation of the blacks was in itself a proof of the inherent ideological racism that permeated the white communities. In the fourth letter attached for documentary purpose at the end of the book, the reaction of the black community against this growing hostility becomes clear: â€Å"I proceed again to the consideration of the bill of unalienable rights belonging to black men, the passage of which will only tend to show that the advocates to emancipation can enact laws more degrading to free man and more injurious to his feeling than all the tyranny of slavery or the shackles of infatuated despotism. †(Nash, 2001, p. 196) Slavery was an open attack on the other race. However, the racism implied in the acts and bills issued after the revolution had waned are indicative of the extent to which this ideology pervaded the white communities of the time. The point of the demonstration seems therefore to hold: the failure to treat the black people as equal after their liberation was due to the inherent racism of the whites. Although freedom and human rights were advocated as grounds for the revolution, the bills issued afterwards point to the inability of the whites to conceive racial equality with the blacks. The events that followed during the nineteenth and the twentieth century enhance this idea. The white and black communities have found it very difficult to accommodate each other. Even at the beginning of the twentieth century, the black men could live as free people but still did not have equal rights to the white community. In his book, Nash achieves a succinct and powerful demonstration of the pervasive racism that motivated many of the events of the revolution at the end of the eighteenth century. Nash thus alleges that the only explanation for the compromises proposed as a replacement for abolitionism is actually the fact that the whites from both North and South equally failed to regard the blacks as their equals in any respect. The paradox comes from the early enthusiasm of the revolution, that seemed to be the mark of a novel and wise understanding of the harmonious relationship that should exist between all the human races at all times. Nash argues therefore that this enthusiasm was perhaps not grounded on a real understanding of the circumstances and that it was more of a theoretical conclusion rather than an actual analysis of the situation. The northerners did not agree with slavery in principle as being a savage and base practice, but were not ready to regard the African Americans as their equals. This fully explains why the revolution actually completed in a series of compromises rather than in the triumph of democracy and humanism, as it should have been expected. Gary B. Nash offers in his book a historical account with a timeline of the objective facts and events during and briefly after the revolution, but also a pertinent theory with respect to the inherent concept of race within the American civilization. He lies out and analyzes a block of data as well as authentic testimonies and documents of the time. It is obvious that he insists more on opinions and declarations from the time of the revolution, rather than on mere facts. Thus, he bases his analysis on the concepts and ideologies which circulated at the time. The supportive material offered for investigation at the end of the book is also very useful for the reader, as it backs up the demonstration that Nash makes. Race and Revolution is, as the title emphasizes, more than a simple historical account. It is an analysis of the concept of ‘race’ and its importance in American history. Nash chooses the time of the revolution to investigate the concept of race precisely because this seems to have been a turning point in the relationship between the white and the black communities. Moreover, at this point, the evolution of the racial conflict seems to have been clearly predicted. The book casts a new light on the revolution itself, which had been preserved as the remembrance of a glorious cause, disputed among the two regions of the United States, the North and the South. Nash draws attention to the actual picture of the revolution as a civil war in which the cause itself was not very clear. The text is therefore structure according to this main point of the demonstration: the reason why slavery became even more powerful at the very moment of the foundation of the United States as a nation. The allusion to the implicit racism at the core of the national experience of America is inescapable. Nash interlocks therefore the two events: the failure to abolish slavery and recognize the African Americans as a people with equal rights and the foundation and unification of the nation itself. He contends therefore that these two events are symbolically related, as the concept of race is deeply rooted in the American experience and culture. Nash’s work is therefore an important analysis that provides new insight on the history of America, of race and on that of the African Americans. The book is all the more fundamental since there has been only very little historical investigation of the African Americans as a separate race at this particular moment in time. In fact, most of the accounts of African American history skip the period of the revolution all together, thus failing to shed light on a very important moment. The role of the blacks in the Revolution itself is also usually ignored by historians. Race and Revolution thus draws attention to essential and yet un-investigated aspects of the American Revolution. The revolution, as Nash observes, is usually discussed as a great movement of emancipation and unification of the colonies on the territory of America. Given its importance as a historical event, the underlying racial debate on the question of slavery at the time is skipped or ignored. Nash demonstrates that this is an important moment for the evolution of the interracial relationships in America precisely because it actually functioned as a crossroads in the history of the United States. If a different course of events had taken place at the time, the conflict between the two races might have had a very different outcome. Thus, the American Revolution was a decisive moment for the interracial contention precisely because is an early form of abolitionism. While endeavoring to obtain their own independence and rights from England, the colonies debated the fundamental question of slavery and whether it should be abolished. The moment is a turning point in history precisely because the choices made at the point where the nation was founded influence the subsequent ideological growth of the nation. Thus, Nash implies in his book that the idealism of the revolution was dashed by the failure of the colonies to abolish slavery at that time. As the author observes, the matter of slavery and race was simply left by the revolutionaries to another generation to solve. This demonstrates that the idealism was sacrificed in favor of economical interest and that the abhorrence for the other race could not be eradicated even at a fundamental time as the American Revolution. Nash therefore achieves a very important statement in historical and cultural studies, pointing out that good causes can often be prevailed upon by petty interests. He also draws attention to the fact that some of the early abolitionists advocated the freedom of the black slaves for the same purpose of convenience, because they believed that white workers would be a better or more profitable option. The struggle caused by racial contention was therefore a complex and long process, in which idealism played a very small part. The actual battle took place between various political and economical interests. Nash also highlights that slavery actually increased its rate in the middle of emancipation again due to economical interests. The invention of the cotton gin in 1793 for instance brought a tremendous enhance to the plantation of cotton and implicitly to the need for slaves as working force. The causes that the revolutionaries fought for were thus not as simple and luminous as they are usually thought to be. The slavery debate at the time of the early republic best demonstrates that the social and political scenes were already very complex theatres. Gary B. Nash’s Race and Revolution is therefore a complex investigation of many aspects of the American Revolution and the slavery debate that took place at the time. The structure and the coherence of the ideas make the book an insightful and useful glance at the events that took place during the American Revolution. The importance of the book can be therefore estimated as quite high, since it sheds lights on new aspects of the revolution and of the early republic. It also demolishes the myth of the revolution as one of the most glorious moments in American history. While there was indeed a stream of idealism permeating the nation at that time, there were also many economical and political interests at play. What becomes clear after reading Nash’s book is that the revolution did not have enough ideological force to suppress racism and implicitly slavery. The abolishment was in fact a slow, gradual process that can be said to have spanned the entire nineteenth century and more than that. Despite the fact that among the revolutionaries there were people who had an enlightened idea about democracy and human rights in general, their force was not sufficient to alter the course of history and prevent further racial conflicts. The fact that the racial war was not won at the time even though independence was gained, proves that race is an inherent concept that will probably always generate conflict and debate. Nash’ book demonstrates that even at a time of idealism like the revolution, racism was still at its height and impossible to suppress. It also proves an important and general remark on the course of history itself, as it pinpoints the complexity of the events during the revolution. The structure of the historical events is never simple and unanimity is very hard to be achieved on a certain point. Therefore, the work emphasizes many aspects of the American Revolution, stressing its importance as a event in the history of the African Americans and in the history of race itself, as a concept. It provides a useful reading precisely because it makes a clear and concise demonstration of the way in which racial debates are fundamental to the American nation itself. The paradox at the center of the American civilization is thus unveiled and discussed: along the tumultuous history of the United States, a very high idealism and democratic principle has mingled with the desire for progress and economical advancement. The history of the United States seems to be permeated by example of opposite aspects entering into an irreconcilable conflict. The highly democratic and enlightened principles of the American Revolution are shadowed thus by the racial debate underlying the main events. As such, the book is an interesting reading for anyone desiring to perfect his or her knowledge of the history of the United States and its cultural paradoxes. References: Nash, Gary B (2001). Race and Revolution. Maryland: Rowman and Littlefield

Tuesday, July 30, 2019

New Barbie Doll produced by Mattel

Who is our target ( give brief lifestyle/attitudinal descriptions. Include some demographics, but not as important for most products. Users, heavy users, nonusers, users of competitive brands? Relationship to other product/ service usage? Emarati girls and their parents are the primary market for the new Islamic Barbie doll.   The highly religious, orthodox group still follows the fundamental Islamic traditions, including the formal dress and head coverings for women.   The most likely to purchase these dolls would be Emarati living in the United States or Europe, or those that are more wealthy and indulgent in the Islamic nations.   Mattel hopes to reach these consumers in the UAE. Where are we now in the mind of the person? (They don’t know us. They know us but don’t use us. They prefer another brand because†¦ they don’t understand what we can do. They don’t use us for enough things. And so on.) The traditions of the Islamic culture differ greatly from American culture.   This could initially present as a source of mistrust on the part of the Islamic consumer.   However, Mattel’s willingness to offer Farah will go a long way to melting this distrust.   In addition, the wild popularity of Barbie will give Farah some brand association along with the wide variety of peripheral products. Where is our competition in the mind of this person?   (Use the same approach as above, but focus on the competing brands). With few Islamic dolls on the market, Mattel should be well positioned to be the leader in marketing its products to Emarati girls.   The only real competition should come from small, family stores in Islamic countries and in predominantly Islamic areas of the United States and Europe. What is the consumer promise, the â€Å"big idea†? ( State the major focus of your campaign. Not a slogan or tag line at this stage, but an idea in simple language that will serve as the basis for a tag line – a brief statement that sums up what the campaign is about.) Mattel hopes to use cultural identity and promotion as the key idea for the marketing of Farah.   Embracing culture means healthy young women. What is the supporting evidence? (Draw on consumer benefits to strengthen and elaborate on what you chose in item 5. build benefit after benefit in support of your big idea.) Diversity and acceptance are becoming important concepts for global marketing.   With the shrinking borders of the world due to technology, cultural practices and values are no longer hidden.   Young Emarati girls will benefit from the knowledge that an international company is focusing on their own culture by promoting it through the Farah doll. What is the tone of voice for the advertising? ( Decide on the appropriate tone – warm, family, values, startling, hi-tech, sobering fact, mild guilt, and so on†¦) The tone of the advertising should be a warm and inviting tone which focuses, as the Arab nations due, on family strength and traditional values.

Monday, July 29, 2019

MIH512-Demography and Health (Module 5-SLP) Essay

MIH512-Demography and Health (Module 5-SLP) - Essay Example The total fertility rate (births per women) has come from 3.1% to 2.7% and is expected to further go down to 2.4%. The crude birth rate (per 1,000 population) has also come down from 25 (in 2001) to 21 (in 2010) and is expected go down to 18 by 2020. Comparatively, the mortality rates have drastically come down. The infant mortality rate (per 1,000 births) has come down from 66 to 49 and expected to go down to 35 by 2020. The net migration rate remains at a constant of -0%. The population of China has grown from 1,270,744 in 2001 to 1,330,141 in 2010, which is further expected to increase to 1,384, 545 by 2020. The growth rate had been constant for the past 10 years (at 0.5%) though it is expected to reduce to 0.2% by 2020. The total fertility rate has also been maintained at 1.5%, which is expected to increase to 1.6% by 2020. The crude birth rate has also been maintained for last 10 years at 12, which is expected to come down to 11 by 2020. The infant mortality rate has come down from 27 in 2001 to 17 in 2010 and is expected to be 13 by 2020. The net migration remains at constant of -0%. The mid year population of United Kingdom has grown from 59,723 in 2001 to 61,285 in 2010, which is expected to further grow to 63,068 in 2020. The growth rate has been constant and is expected to be constant at 0.3%. The fertility rate has been maintained at 1.7% constantly over the last few years and is expected to be maintained. The crude birth rate is also at a constant of 11. The infant mortality rate has been maintained at 5 for last 10 years and is expected to be down to 4 by 2020. The migration rate is maintained at 2% constantly and is expected to be maintained. The mid year population here has steadily increased from 12,622 in 2001 to 14, 753 in 2010 and is expected to increase to 17, 601 in 2020. The growth rate has been maintained at 1.8% for the last 10 years but is expected to be low by 2020 to 1.6%. The fertility rate has been reduced by 0.6% in past few

Sunday, July 28, 2019

Doctrine of Precedent Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Doctrine of Precedent - Essay Example This is opposite to the European legal system as it is founded on legal examples and possibilities. The substance of precedent is known as "common law" and it bonds future determinations. When parties are in disagreement in the future and if the nature of the conflict is similar then the common law court bases its decision with the help of Presidential decisions of applicable courts2. The court is bound to follow the reasoning of a past similar disagreement in which the issue was resolved. This principle is called ‘stare decisis’. But if the present disagreement is different from all other previous cases then the judges have the right and responsibility to formulate new law which thus creates a precedent as in Marbury v. Madison, 5 U.S. 137 (1803); "It is emphatically the province and duty of the judicial department to say what the law is. Those who apply the rule to particular cases, must of necessity expound and interpret that rule. If two laws conflict with each other, the courts must decide on the operation of each". From then on, the new verdict became precedent, and is binding on future courts. The English legal system is based on the common law and the precedents. The doctrine of precedent is defined as ‘The common law principle which binds a judge or a magistrate to follow previous similar decision of higher courts in the same hierarchy; also known as stare decisis’ (Vickery & Pendleton 2006), which implies the decision stands. The doctrine of precedent derives from common law and law of equity, which is ‘English-made’ laws that aims to be fair and treat all equally, so that the decisions by the courts are predictable and consistent in resolving disputes. There are binding and persuasive precedents, of which binding precedents are known as ‘ratio decidendi’ when the final order or ‘res judicata’ by the

Saturday, July 27, 2019

Safety Legislation Writing Project #2 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words - 1

Safety Legislation Writing Project #2 - Essay Example This will involve educating the employees on the hazardous chemicals and how to avoid their impacts while they are undertaking their duties. As depicted by 29 CFR 1910.1200, my focus will be to ensure that all the employees are aware on how to undertake a first aid process before a medical attention is sought. The second step is to initiate an emergency action plan. Thirdly, is to establish a fire safety plan. In this way, fire related incidents will be dealt with in an appropriate way. My fourth step would be to come up with an exit route. In this way, my organisation will be compliant with OSHA requirements of establishing an exit route in every building (United States Department of labor 14). Fifthly, I would establish a walking surface. Such surfaces will be vital in reducing the number of accidents that may be as a result of falls and slips. My sixth step would be to establish a first aid kit. In this way, employees who may be injured in the cause of their duties will have an op portunity to be treated before going for further medical check up. Safety profession involves offering appropriate protection to all the employees against any kind of harm while undertaking their daily duties. By use of various aspects from different fields such as health, education, psychology and engineering among others, safety professionals are paramount in preventing occurrences of accidents in an organisation. One of the major fields that are imperative in ensuring that matters relating to safety profession are well addressed is the safety science. Safety science involves all activities that are undertaken to prevent accidents, illnesses, explosions and fire among other events that may harm employees and the environment. In the same way, safety science gives the safety professionals skills to evaluate and identify hazards in the work places. Additionally, safety science provides effective methods that managers should use in setting policies that relate to safety. In

Friday, July 26, 2019

Management of People in Multinational Enterprises Essay

Management of People in Multinational Enterprises - Essay Example This paper illustrates that while this has generally benefited the people living the country by providing them the wide range of products, availability of all kinds of products, competitive prices and increased job opportunities, it has had a challenging impact on the multinational enterprises. Such companies also are known as MNCs have been facing issues of managing its resources and operations in the global arena. P. V. Morgan defines International Human Resource Management or IHRM as ‘the interplay between three dimensions: †¦ human resource activities, types of employees and countries of operation’. Thus IRHM is an extension of the typical human resource management which includes six functions: human resource planning, staffing, performance appraisal and management, training and development, compensation and motivation and industrial relations. While all these activities are included within IHRM, the function of IHRM is includes managing the different types of e mployees. In IHRM, three kinds of employees are defined: host country employees, home country employees, and other country employees. In the same manner, countries of operation include three kinds of countries: host country, home country, and another country. The host country is where the company is operating; home country refers to the country where the company maintains its headquarters and other country is any country that is related to the company in terms of labor, finance etc. Globalization has greatly changed the way that companies operate and do this and IHRM is one function that has been developed as a result of the increase in globalization at such a rapid rate. The expansion of companies in different countries has made the function of IHRM necessary as globalization has brought together people from different countries, cultures, status, and gender.

A rhetorical analysis of an argumentative article of your choosing Essay

A rhetorical analysis of an argumentative article of your choosing - Essay Example The article on gun laws was viewed almost by everyone in the world and especially the United States citizens. This was as a result of the Colorado cinema shooting fiasco. The authors’ argument is generally based on the perfect implementation of gun laws in the United States and the rest of the word. This finally will enhance the respect of the sanctity of human life. This paper tries to bring out an argumentative nature of the gun law article. This was because of various opinions from different individuals after the Colorado cinema shooting. According to these composed writers, in 2007, a total number of twelve thousand six hundred and thirty two people in the United States succumbed to firearms related injuries. Another 48676 were admitted to hospitals for gunshot wounds (Bellesiles 28). These two writers are of the opinion that; the restriction gun laws or even relaxing them will reduce the death toll thru shooting which has been a contentious issue in America. These intelle cts on law furthermore argue that proponents of tighter gun laws will definitely do away with these vital and risky weapons falling on wrong hands. These wrong hands in their argumentative article may include criminals, addicted drug users or even the mentally ill individuals (Carter 180). The two with no doubt believe that drug users are majorly the result of the senseless shooting in the public social settings. The gun laws article also criticises the age individuals should be allowed to acquire guns. In the United States, the bare minimum age to hold a gun legally is eighteen years old. This to some extent is not appropriate for these young individuals are not mature for an efficient and effective decision-making (Ramage 98). This according to these two researchers cum writers, in most cases, has also resulted into premature exchange of words and shooting senselessly by the young individuals in the United States. These two writers also believe it is not only in the United States where gun laws are very weak, but this extends to several parts of the world. In a country like South Korea, these prolific writers believe and thus argue that homicide cases related to guns are far less compared to the United States due to strict gun laws which they as well understand is the father of democracy. These examples of fundamentally different states in thefield of gun laws prove that restricting gun laws will actually benefit the populace. These writers, on the other hand, argue that restricting gun laws is more beneficial. Through the restriction of gun laws, the articles firmly believe and argues that day-to-day senseless shooting is curbed totally. Private gun dealers who sell guns ignore critical regulation to those who purchase the guns hence about 85percent of all guns used in crimes unrecovered by law enforcers are linked to them. All these private party sales allow almost everybody to put a stockpile of weapons (Spitzer 238). This as well greatly undermines the g overnment efforts to control the illegal firearms in the country. A private party gun sale is completely unwarranted. This makes the private party gun sales comparable to over the counter purchase of home effects. There are those who argue and believe that relaxing gun laws would create a safer state. Gun advocates and gun manufacturers strongly argue that more guns equals’ tighter security as every gun holder can act as a police. An example is where a criminal or terrorist who pulls out an assault automatic rifle to start

Thursday, July 25, 2019

Brain injiury Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3500 words

Brain injiury - Essay Example Stroke- This one refers to the injury that occurs as a result of a vascular event. Traumatic injury- This refers to the damage that takes place when a force from the outside traumatically causes injury to the brain cells. Acquired injury- This is the last form of injury and it refers to one that takes place after birth not considering if it is traumatic or not. It also regardless to whether it has been caused by external or internal cause. Research shows that the number of people who are suffering from brain injury is high because there are those who live with this situation while there are those who sustain new injuries every year (Ayse, 2013, 25). Brain damage usually affects an individual emotionally, physically and behaviorally. Some of the causes of Brain injury include: Falls Bomb blast or a military attack Violence or a wound as a result of a gunshot. Accidents such as those involving motor vehicles Insufficient oxygen in the body Body inflammation There are various ways to kn ow an individual who is suffering from brain damage because there are some behavioral activities shown by them (Bickley, Hogan-Quigley ans Palm, 2012, 38). Some of the symptoms of brain damage therefore include: Difficult coordination of balance in the body Headaches Blurred vision in both eyes or a single one Changes in patterns of sleep Lack of bladder control Seizures These are some of the physical symptoms shown by individuals who are suffering from brain injury (Wilson, 2008, 56). Apart from these symptoms, there are emotional changes that are also revealed by individuals suffering from this injury. These symptoms include: Confusion Poor concentration Mood swings Communication troubles Attention span that is limited Changes in personality These are among many emotional changes that are seen in individuals who are suffering from brain damage. This project seeks to show how individuals suffering from brain injury are taken care of. In this case, the project will look at how a pat ient suffering from traumatic brain injury was taken care of and how he was provided with all the things necessary to help him get better with his situation. There are many things that have to be taken into consideration when taking care of a traumatic brain injury patient (Karlsson, 2013, 323). Traumatic Brain injury abbreviated as TBI is a health problem which is known to be a major one in the public. It is known to affects male adolescents and young adults who are in the age gap of 15 and 24. It is also a common health problem among the elderly people who are of 75 years and above. Young children who are below the age of 5 are also at a risk of suffering from this health problem. Having in mind that this patient was suffering from a traumatic brain injury, it is clear that it was an external cause that led to this damage. The level of this injury was mild because this patient was not able to experience he was suffering from this after some time. This gives a clear impression that the hit was not hard in that the patients was not able to realize that he was suffering from brain damage. While having a talk with the patient, we realized that these are some of the symptoms he had. Ringing in the eras, dizziness, bad taste in the mouth, confusion, headache and change in sleeping patterns (Vries, 2013, 38). These are actually some of the sympt

Wednesday, July 24, 2019

Managing Work Activities Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Managing Work Activities - Assignment Example Accounting and finance is concerned with an analysis of the budget in the business in order to minimize costs and maximize savings. Finally, the Legal function takes care of any business contracts with all stakeholders, and also deals with compliance with domestic and international standards. All these functions complement each other especially following Nokia’s organizational structure. The office of the CFO ensures that there are enough funds to fund the budget and pay the staffs, thus making sure that the human resource and finance functions. Availability of funds and personnel eases the processes of marketing and customer service, since there are more people to do the work. By knowing what the consumer wants, the company is able to come up with products that meet the set legal standards, while also pleasing the customer. Q2: Explain the functionality of three departments of an engineering business of your choice, (which could be the engineering business established in assi gnment 1). Explain the importance and effects of each function on the operation of the company as a whole. The department for designing is the most significant in Nokia. This department determines the look of Nokia products, in addition to their various functionalities. Accordingly, this department has to create products that are appealing to the consumer, yet they are affordable and have high functionality. According to the Nokia website, the design department houses the solutions unit which is tasked with coming up with practical products that have varied content and are able to meet the personalized need of the consumer. Essentially, Nokia’s products should be able to offer solutions to some consumer needs, for example, the need to access the internet using a mobile device. While doing this, the design department needs to maintain low operational costs so that the company maximizes profits. It is the design department that ensures that Nokia stays in the market, by designi ng products that offer a competitive advantage with Nokia’s rivals. Without the designing department, Nokia would not be able to compete with other manufacturers, in the production of state-of-the-art products. Fundamentally, the design department is the one that ensures that Nokia remains relevant in the business, thus assuring the company’s survival. The human resource department is a very important department, since it is charged with the recruitment, training and sometimes, retraining of personnel. According to Griffin, a company needs to identify future human resource need s and recruit accordingly (232). Without this department, Nokia, and any other company would not be able to run operations, since machines cannot operate themselves. Human resource ensures that people with the right qualifications are employed and that they are trained to meet the standards at Nokia. Without the right workforce, Nokia would not be able to battle in the global market which has be come increasingly competitive in recent years. The sales and marketing department at Nokia ensures that the company has proper sales channels through engaging in product branding and promotional activities. In the current

Tuesday, July 23, 2019

An analysis on how corporations are affected by change and enforcement Dissertation

An analysis on how corporations are affected by change and enforcement of tax regulations - Dissertation Example 19 2.9 Tax Jurisdiction that Exempt Foreign –Source Income 21 2.10 Jurisdiction that Offer Tax Incentives to Qualified Holding Companies 21 2.11 Thin Capitalisation Rules 22 2.12 Do Taxes Impact Corporate Mergers? 23 2.13 Inverse Conversion by US Companies? 24 2.14 Corporate Tax Reforms in USA 25 2.15 Tax Planning – How G.E USA not Paid a Single Dollar In 2010 As Income-Tax? 27 2.16 Whether High Tax Rates compel the UK Companies to Relocate? 29 2.17 Why British Shipping Companies prefer Malta Registration? 30 2.18 Tax advantages for UK companies by Outsourcing to India 31 3 Findings 33 4 Recommendations 35 4 Conclusion 36 5 List of References 38 Tables: Table 1 Ease of Payment of Taxes 13 Table 2 Prevailing Corporate Taxes around the World 14 Graphs Graph 1 Perception of the Importance of the Climate Governments Create for Business Through Tax Policies or Financial Incentives 15 INTRODUCTION In modern era, the government of a nation assumes a significant role in develop ing the commercial, financial, general policies of the business concerns in the country and taxation policy is one of such mighty mechanisms of intervention. The privilege to tax domestic companies and to tax the every citizen of a nation is intrinsic in the sovereign command of every nation and its government. The taxation of business enterprises has become a chief avenue of revenue for the government due to constantly increasing burden of fiscal deficit in their budgets. The functions and duties of every government will include a provision of public health, public education, and the development of infrastructure facilities, provisions of multi services like old age pension, unemployment insurance and to cover these costs. Government is under obligation to tax both unincorporated and incorporated business sector. The reasons for confidence ushered on corporate sector for special tax treatment are mainly due to administrative convenience and political feasibility. Like individuals, business corporations do not exercise voting power in elections. Hence, government is more depending upon the corporate sector to raise additional revenues to a larger magnitude nowadays. (Tyagi and Kumar2003:390). To raise income, government levy charges or taxes on various activities, incomes, earnings of companies, individuals, etc. and this process is known as taxation. Taxation is of two type’s viz. direct taxation and indirect taxation. For instance, excise duties are known as indirect tax which is imposed on the manufacturing, production and import of merchandises like tobacco, alcohol, oil and gas and minerals. Illustrations of direct taxes are income-tax and property tax. (Tyagi and Kumar2003:390). The effect of taxation policies in business decision is more critical and viable as at a time when corporate taxation is contributing chiefly to the national exchequer. Day by day, the role of taxation policies in business decision is increasing, which increases its encumb rances. Higher corporate taxes may axe the corporate development and hamper the expansion of manufacturing capacity, hence, it becomes crucial to this research into the chief effects of corporate taxation policies on the business enterprises. (Tyagi and Kumar2003:390). The sudden spurt in corporate tax revenues in low-tax OECD nations may be due to the large scale of inflow of investment

Monday, July 22, 2019

New Hire Communication Essay Example for Free

New Hire Communication Essay Welcome to Apple, as a new hire I would like to introduce you to our Company culture and our process. As the new manager at Apple, you’re expected to follow our rules and regulations and train new employees according to the regulations enforced by the company. Company Culture At Apple, we are innovative, futuristic, high-tech, and terminated to reach our business goal of $10,000 sales per week. Our high-tech products are unique from cellphones, laptops, watches, and robo-pets. Our company is unique because we allow our employees to be creative and productive, we give them an opportunity to flourish with the company. Company Process Our Company Process to reach our sales goal of $10,000 per week is to have 90% close ratio. We have the most top selling products for the past three quarters, it’s important that we keep our numbers up and ask our customers what they like about our products and what else would other products that they would be interested in purchasing. Once finalizing a sale the customer is to receive a coupon book of various other products that we sell with the company. All sales are documented in our systems and a second receipt is kept within the register. Company Procedures Depending on the product the customer purchased, at Apple we show the customer how to use their device and to maintain it for a long life span. For instance, if the customer purchases an Iphone we show them how to  operate the device and downloads any apps they may be interested in and show them how to setup their emails, contacts, and etc. We show clients how to search and download apps that help them maintain their lifestyle. We help the client login in to their emails so they have them on hand without the use of a computer. If the customer had another phone we help them retrieve their contacts without the hassle of reentry. The iphone also comes with Siri who helps the user navigate through the phone or any question the researcher may have. Siri can call your contact, research information, and even offer the client a weather update. As our new manager at Apple, you are expected to follow our procedures and regulations and train all new employees to do the same. Our company is innovative and unique we offer our clients the best products available to them and build client relationships for future business with them.

Sunday, July 21, 2019

Impact of Student Socio-Economic Background on Performance

Impact of Student Socio-Economic Background on Performance â€Å"THE IMPACT OF STUDENT’S SOCIO-ECONOMIC BACKGROUND ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE† A CASE STUDY OF NORTH-EAST STUDENTS IN LOVELY PROFESSIONAL UNIVERSITY (PUNJAB) JALESH GURUNG CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION ORIENTATION OF THE PROBLEM Education is a basic tool used by society for transmission of its societal values and culture. so, every parents are the most immediate relation of a child for their development and growth. Their financial status and education do have an important influence on the personality of child. For instance educated parents can better understand the educational needs and their children’s aptitude. They can help their children in their early education which affects their proficiency in their relative area of knowledge, confidence, idea, etc. While, Belonging to strong financial background, parents can provide latest technologies and facilities in a best possible way to enhance educational capability of their children as well as they provide good education facilities also. Socioeconomic status is an economic and sociological combined total measure of a persons work experience and of an individuals or family’s economic and social position relative to others, based on income and education, and occupation (Marmot, Michael, 2004) indicates When analyzing a family’s social economic status, the household income, earners’ education and occupation are examined, as well as combined income, versus with an individual, when their own attributes are assessed. Many factors and reasons have been given as being responsible for the continuous falling in the academic standard of our present educational system. These includes; attitudes of teachers to work, lack of seriousness on the part of the students, effect of the dwindled economy and to some extent the increasing degenerating moral system. According to Lareau, Annette ( 2003) observes that Socioeconomic status is typically broken into three categories, high, middle, and low to describe the three areas a family or an individual may fall into when placing a family or individual into one of these categories any or all of the three variables income, education, and occupation can be assessed. Additionally, low income and little education have shown to be strong predictors of a range of physical and mental health problems due to environmental conditions may be the entire cause of that person’s social predicament to begin with. Most economically disadvantaged children have effectively mastered the usual developmental childhood tasks of motor and language skills, and have learned the values of social practices of their homes and neighborhoods (Harry Klingner, 2007); but they may not have learned particular forms of language or the ways in which schools use specific forms of language to the extent that their middle inco me peers have. Therefore, it can be assumed that students’ failure to achieve academically may be explained by other factors also. The amount of money that a family has or the color of a child’s skin should not influence how well that child learns (Rothstein, 2004) Literature review These chapter focus on the relevant and related literature of various researches in an attempt to relate their work to this study. Sub topic related to the literature review are as follows: The concept of social and economic problems Relationship between parents income to the students. The students academic performance as well as social adjustment (i)The concept of social and economic problems While sociology use some broad theoretical sense to explain the concept and meaning of society and its activities. They divide the macro-level society into two broad perspectives, namely functionalism and conflict theory, and then the feminist theory, which combines both micro and micro-levels of analysis, and also the interactions theory, a micro –level analysis which is by far the most influential of the social psychological theories in sociology. (Coleman and Cressey, 1999).The idea make up of the society in such that individual and group of individual is co-exist in the society and make them as a harmony and pace without any threat to the society. Moreover the concept of social and economic problems is that misconstrued by many people. (ii)Relationship between parents income to the students. APA ( 2001) describe the relationship of family socioeconomic status to childrens readiness for school, Across all socioeconomic groups; parents face major challenges when it comes to providing optimal care and education for their children. For families in poverty these challenges can be formidable. Sometimes, when basic necessities are lacking, parents must place top priority on housing, food, clothing, and health care. Educational toys, games, and books may appear to be luxuries, and parents may not have the time, energy, or knowledge to find innovative and less-expensive ways to foster young childrens development. Furthermore,( Ominde, S.H 1964) observes that even in families with above average income parents often lack the time and energy to invest fully in their childrens preparation for school, and they sometimes face a limited array of options for high-quality child care both before their children start school and during the early school years. Kindergarten teachers throughout the country report that children are increasingly arriving at school inadequately prepared. Families with low socioeconomic status often lack the financial, social, and educational supports that characterize families with high socioeconomic status. Poor families also may have inadequate or limited access to community resources that promote and support childrens development and school readiness. Parents may have inadequate skills for such activities as reading to and with their children, and they may lack information about childhood immunizations and nutrition. Lareau, Annette (2004) state that low maternal education and minority-language status are most consistently associated with fewer signs of emerging literacy and a greater number of difficulties in preschoolers. Having inadequate resources and limited access to available resources can negatively affect families decisions regarding their young childrens development and learning. As a result, children from families with low socioeconomic status are at greater risk of entering kindergarten unprepared than their peers from families with median or high socioeconomic status. Amutabi, M.A (2003) says that the impact of socioeconomic status on children’s readiness for school: while the segregating nature of social class, ethnicity, tradition may well reduce the variety of enriching experience through to be prerequisite for creating readiness to learn among children activates. Similarly, cast ethnic value, housing, neighborhood and access to resource that directly or indirectly affect enrichment or deprivation as well as the acquisition of specific value system (iii)The student’s academic performance as well as social adjustment Academic performance of students in the classroom is very important as this is capable of determining whether the student is doing well or not. Parents, Teachers, School Administrators attach so much importance to students’ academic performance that if the students are not performing well academically, then they see all other efforts of the students in the school programme as a total waste. These people pretend as if there are no other activities for the student in the school environment aside the academics, hence academic performance defines the totality of the child in his school life. Contrary to the opinion of this group, it is important that there are many factors that determine the level of a student’s academic achievement, chief among these factors is social adjustment. Moreover, academic performance has been seen as a term used for students based on how well they are doing in their studies and classes. This definition tends to see academic performance as the culmination of all the activities of the student in the school. Academic performance for the student is also seen as the extent to which a student has achieved his educational goals (Wikipedia, 2012-2014). 1.3 Statement of the problems According to study published in 2001 issue of Psychological Science found that children of parents with a high socioeconomic status tended to express more disengagement behaviors than their less fortunate peers. In this context, disengagement behaviors represent actions such as fidgeting with other objects and drawing pictures while being addressed. Other participants born into less favored circumstances tended to make more eye contact, nods as signs of happiness when put into an interactive social environment. The more fortuitous peers felt less inclined to gain rapport with their group because they saw no need for their assistance in the future. However, Socio-economic status can be measured in a number of different ways. The prime things that commonly it is measured by father’s education, occupation and income. All familys socioeconomic status is based on family income, parental education level, parental occupation, and social status in the community such as contacts within the community, group associations, and the communitys academic performance of the family, while families with high socioeconomic status often have more success in preparing their young children for school because they typically have access to a wide range of resources to promote and support young childrens development in day to day life. They are able to provide their young children with high- quality child care, books, and toys to encourage children in various learning activities at home but lack in poor ones. And , they have easy access to information regarding their childrens health, as well as social, emotional, and cognitive development. In addition, families with high socioeconomic status often seek out information to help them better prepare their young children for school and college. The study aimed at finding o ut the contribution of socio-economic status of the family on the academic performance of the student in private Universities in Punjab, A case study of North-East students in lovely professional university. 1.4 Objective To study the relationship between socio- economic status of families and its impact on the academic performance of the students in university. To study the impact of the level of parents’ education on the academic performance of the students in university level. To study the impact of occupations of parents on academic performance of the students in the in university. Similarly, to know about the negative impact as well as positive impact on the students performance. To study the impact of family income on academic performance of the students in the various courses in university. To study the impact of expenditure on children’s education on their academic performance in the university. To know about the student’s academic performance (TGPA/CGPA) according to their families socio-economic background. CHAPTER-II METHODS AND PROCEDURE 2.1 STUDY AREA 2.2METHODS While, according to the availability of data the method adopted for this study was descriptive and statistical in nature. The sample consists of 95 students selected from different courses in the university. Therefore, Out of 95 students 36 were males and 59 were females in age range of 20 to 30 from different schools. To have a comparative study of the boys and the girls ,the sample was drawn from both the boys and the girl’s institutions. Stratified random sampling technique was applied for selection of the students for the sample. Similarly, For a detailed technical discussion of all that will be presented in this section, see Dachs et al (2006) Figure 1 –Heretical web of determinants of academic performance of students at university (Dechs et al. 2006) 2.3 QUESTIONNAIRE A self designed questionnaire was used for collection the data. First of all, The questionnaires were designed keeping in mind the objectives of the study and the clarity required at the field level for filling the questionnaire. In this study both types of questionnaire are used i.e. closed-ended as well open ended or combination of both. 2.4 DATA COLLECTION The primary data was collected through the help of questionnaires. While its carry both types such as closed ended as well as open ended questions and they are self administered. All around 95 of questionnaires ware distributed in different block of the University. Secondary data were collected by the appropriated data sources including news paper, books, journals, and activities both published and un-published data sources. Therefore, the data were collected by the method of snow ball survey as well as self distributed. Generally I followed this methods because it was save my time and costs. Additional documents were collected by the university faculty and from friends as well. 2.5 PROCESSING OF DATA The Entire data from the field observation was processed and tabulated in the computer unit. However these processes include the writing, interpretation, analysis of data etc. The programmed for the data feeding, coding of data, scrutinizing of data, preparing of table for the report as well as preparing of statistical volume and analytical tools likewise bar diagram, percentages, pie chat etc.

Effective leadership impact on organization success

Effective leadership impact on organization success A leader is anyone who uses interpersonal skill to influence others to accomplish specific goal. The functions of a leader are to achieve a consensus within the group about its goal, maintain a structure that facilitates accomplishing the goal, supply necessary information that helps to provide direction and clarification, and maintain group satisfaction, cohesion, and performance (Sullivan Decker, 2010).Leadership is viewed as the process of guiding, teaching motivating and directing the activities of others towards attaining goals. It involves having the ability to influence others (EllisHartley, 2005). The Leadership is the relationship between those who aspire to lead and those who choose to follow. Innovative leadership is needed in academic institution as the pressure to deliver high quality care. Yet, nursing academic leaders are often chosen for leadership position based solely on their performance in academic endeavours (Chen, Beck Amose, 2005). During times of dramatic organizational changes in health systems, nursing management is both challenging and difficult task. The style of the manager can be important for subordinates acceptance of change and in motivating them to achieve high quality of care. Leadership style in the sense of a managers way of influencing the subordinates and researches on leadership style is mostly based on a theory that there are specific behaviours, which together develop leadership style. New leadership behaviour has developed, more focused on change within the company (Sellgren, EkvallTomson, 2006).The purpose of this study is to describe different leadership style and examine effective leader and discuss how a leader can develop effective leadership style and you should focus on how effective leadership impacts an organizations potential to succeed. Article for this paper collected from ebcohost research database, google scholar and from the books of leadership and management. Different styles of leadership A transformational leader may be defined as a leader who motivates followers to perform their full potential by influencing changes in the perceptions and providing in the sense of direction to the group. The group is encouraged to set aside personal interests for the good of the group. Group members are empowered and motivated and provide input to decision making and leaders and followers raise one another to higher level of performance (EllisHartley2005).Relational leadership is viewed as s relational process designed to accomplish a common goal to benefit all. As with transformational leadership the leader is empowering and process oriented moving the group towards the goal (EllisHartley,2005).Servant leadership theory in which the successful leaders as being able to influence others as a result of dedicating their life to serving others(EllisHarley,2005). Transactional leadership is based on social exchange theory. In this style leaders are successful to the extent that they understand and meet the needs of followers and use incentives to enhance employees loyalty and performance. This style is aimed at maintaining equilibrium, by performing work according to the policy and procedures, maximising self interest and personal rewards, emphasising interpersonal dependence and routine performance (Sullivan Decker, 2010).Quantum leadership is based on concept of chaos theory. In this frame work, employees become directly involved in decision making as equitable and accountable partners and managers assume more off an influential facilitative role rather than one of control(Sullivan Decker, 2010). Charismatic leadership is based on personal qualities such as charm, persuasiveness, personal power, self confidence extraordinary ideas, and strong conviction. Few leaders possess genuine charisma. (Sullivan Decker, 2010). Shared leadership which is based on the empowerment principles of participative and transformational leadership Essential elements of shared leadership are relationship dialogues, partnership and understanding boundaries. The application of shared leadership assumes that well educated, highly professional, dedicated work force is comprised of many leaders (Sullivan Decker, 2010).According to behaviour based theories, there are four styles of leadership the first one the autocratic leadership assumes that the leader exercise ultimate power in decision making and control rewards and punishments for the subordinates in confirming to their decision. The second one the democratic leadership assumes that individuals are motivated by internal drives and impulses, want active participation in decisions and want to get the task done, the leaders uses participation and majority rule in setting goals and working towards achievement (Sullivan Decker, 2010). The laissez-faire leadership style also assumes that individual are motivated by internal drives and impulses and that may lead to left alone to make decision about how to complex the work, the leader provides no direction or fecilitation.The forth style is the bureaucratic leadership style. The bureaucrat leadership assumes that employees are motivated by external forces. This leader trusts neither followers nor self to make decision and therefore relies on organizational policies and rules to identify goals and direct work process (Sullivan Decker, 2010). How a leader can develop effective leadership style. Effective leaders are those who acknowledge the importance of task oriented and relationship oriented action and to seek to provide structure and support for subordinates (EllisHartley2005).In transactional leadership style followers agree about achieving the required goal and objectives in exchange for rewards or praise. Once goal is achieved rewards are provided. By contrast the transformational is visionary and charismatic resulting in motivated employees (Farag, McguinnesAnthoy, 2008).The transformational organizational culture usually characterised by flexibility and creativity with emphasis on questioning policies, strategies, and method used, to acquire more effective organizational performance strongly associated with climates that restrict creativity and innovation, and they are able to create synergetic environment that enhance collaboration towards change.(Hendel, Fish Galone,2005). One studies conducted among CEOs and subordinate managers by Spinelli, the subordinate manager perceived more the leader as exhibiting transformational behaviour, the grater he or she reported exerting extra effort, expressed satisfaction with leader and believed leader to be more effective. The relationship between transformational leadership and the outcome factors were stronger and more positive than the transaction style and lasses- faire. Contingent rewards correlated less positively with the outcomes, management by exception and laissez faire correlated negatively by outcome factors. The contingent reward process produce only anticipated level of effort and standard performance. A limitation of transaction leadership style is that it offers little encouragement to exceed and achieve performance beyond the transactional contract. (Spinelli, 2006).Some scholars describes the transactional leaders as one who subordinate and controls, while transformational leaders sets direction a nd create opportunities for the professional development of individual health care team members. But some argue that the transactional leader is often self centred, leading via directive and mandates, while more transformational leader in an inclusive motivator, proactively solving problem that promote team effectiveness (Brien,Martin,HeyworthMeyer,2008). Moreover in transaction leadership the one of the main criticism is the lacking of vision for future and endorsing only first order changes which implicate on policy and procedure rather than organizational or cultural change. On the other hand transformational leader motivate and energize staff to pursue mutual goals share vision and secure an empowering culture, where personal value and reciprocated respect are fundamental principles. However to achieve this level the nurse manager may constantly familiarise themselves with legislative and policy document that impact upon health care delivery to ensure that they assumes realistic and attainable goal (Murphy, 2005).Transformational leadership may be associated with .job satisfaction and well being appears, at least partially, to be through the creation of working environment characterised by employees working environment by employees experiencing their work as a meaningful, having influence and being involved in their work. (Nielsen , Yarker, Brenner, RandallBrog, 2008) A transformational leader is a courageous change agent who is skilled in managing situations of uncertainty. The effective transformational leader uses language to create within the individual follower a sense of competency and sense of self. When the leaders set forth high expectations followers are convinced that they are capable of accomplishing goal of moral and enduring purpose also through the effective communications that the followers are persuaded to make the differences to make an enduring change. The leader is crucial to this transformation but the essence of transformational leadership is that the followers do not become dependent on the leader, they instead become a leader. A more hierarchical, autocratic leadership style is not a trusted agent adequate for change. A group of followers disillusioned with unfair system of leadership is ripe for emergence of a transformational leader who will organise and empower them to move towards the necessary adaptation of autonomy (K amm-Larew, Stanford, Green, HeacoxHodge, 2008). Another study conducted about leadership style of Finnish nursing managers, democratic leadership style was found as important, because it promoted employees commitment to work. This style gives the impression that the managers really want to hear employees thoughts and works as a team member. But autocratic leadership style was typical in work place where people had to react quickly and effectively to changing situations. It resembled commanding leadership style which decreases the autonomy of nurses. An autocratic leadership style prevents empowerment of nurses, because they do not have possibilities to participate in work planning (Vesterinen, IsolaPaasivaara, 2009). Autocratic and task oriented leadership styles require absolute obedience from followers, with an expectation of worker efficiency in order to accomplish group goals (Chang, 2008). One study in UK regarding servant leadership principles, applied in the care of rural older adults utilizing a service leaning experience in the delivery of health and wellness, is a perfectly appropriate application of inter professional care. This study demonstrates the essential process of inter professional education by supporting the facilitated exchange of skills, knowledge and disposition between faculty and students, provider and client, theory and practice. Community based education which fosters a collaborative approach to care, improved communication, and valued expertise of team members benefits all, particularly a segment of population at elevated risk of disease and disability (Neil, Hayward, Peterson, 2007).But another research conducted about servant leadership among doctors and nurses, nurses have a more positive self -perception of themselves as servant leaders than physician (Garber, Madigan, ClickFitzpatrick, 2009). How effective leadership impacts an organizations potential to succeed Effective leadership is seen as a potent source of management developed and sustained competitive advantage for organizational performance improvement .For instance transactional leadership help organizations achieve their current objectives more efficiently by linking job performance to valued reward and by ensuring employees have the resource needed to get the job done. Visionary leaders create a strategic vision of some future state, communicate that vision through framing and use of a metaphor, model of vision by acting consistently, and build commitment towards the vision. Some scholars suggest that visionary leadership will result in high level of cohesion, commitment, trust, motivation, and hence performance in the new organizational environment. (Jing Avery, 2008). Transformational leader achieve organizational goal by empowering staff that are committed to the same organizational goal (Farag et al 2008). But organizational Bureaucracy, hierarchy, authoritarian leadership and poor access to information were to found limit empowerment and leader to dissatisfaction, burnout and absenteeism. (Tomey, 2009). It might be important that rather than changing implementing wide range of organizational changes for a large number of employees, many studies suggest that training the supervisor might have similar impact. Training staff at managerial level might be more cost effective and easy to control than implementing wide ranging organizational change. (Nielsen et al, 2008). Moreover transformational leadership style foster healthy staff focused work places and positive work place management initiative such as shared organizational goal, learning opportunities, career development, reward schemes, autonomy, participation and empowerment strategies but poor leadership and management styles ,impatient ,defensive ,unsupportive leadership lack of supervision and guidance, control, and lack of recognitions of contribution have been identified as major stressors.( Tomey,2009).According to a study conducted among dentist about exploring leadership style , autocratic decision making process were associated with increased organizational ambiguity and higher degree of functional identity . Not surprisingly, dentist given the highest leadership ratings engaged staff members in participative decision making process, affording them the opportunity to learn about possible change and to offer input. (Chilcutt, 2009). Transformational leaders rely on empathy to understand followers thoughts, feelings, and point of view. Leaders with empathetic qualities inspire greater depth of self -exploration in followers and the supportive interpersonal orientation increases followers positive perceptions about the leader, feelings, and job satisfaction. To bring about organizational change through higher performance, transformational leader must fully engage and connect with their followers. The key factors like evocations, framing, and mobilizations of emotions with a leader can change the organization through commitment. Emotional bonds are implicit in transformational leadership behaviours. Leader who responds empathetically to co-workers can improve organizational effectiveness. In addition transformational leaders change their organization by persuading followers to embrace positive vision and ideals. (Barbuto Burbach, 2006).However, in general the effect of leadership on organizational performance has not been well studied. Some researchers criticised leadership studies for focussing excessively on subordinate relationship to the exclusion of several other function that leaders perform, and to the exclusion of organizational and environmental variables that are crucial to mediate the leadership-performance relationship (Jing Avery, 2008). Conclusion. In conclusion leadership is viewed as the process of guiding, teaching motivating and directing the activities of others towards attaining goal. It involves having abilities to influence others. Leadership often involves moving in to a position because of special abilities skills or attributes and may be formal or informal within the organization. It can be seen that there are different leadership styles mostly based on theory that there are specific behaviours which together developed as leadership styles. Each style has specific aim and goals and it effectiveness varies according to the situation, characteristics of the leader and the followers in which they function. It is evidenced that from above literature each leadership style has advantages and disadvantages and may used productively according to the situation. Majority of the studies suggest that, when comparing different leadership style, transformational leadership is better than other styles because of clear vision, capac ity to empower the followers, empathy, autonomy, chances of career development and learning. Moreover leadership has crucial role in the success of the organizational potential and performance. Success can be achieved by training the staff at the managerial level may be cost effective and more beneficial rather than changing wide range of organizational change. Some researchers suggest that visionary leadership may help high level of performance in the new organizational environment. More researches and studies needed for the development of effective leadership style and its impact on organizational success.

Saturday, July 20, 2019

Greek Legacies :: essays research papers

Greek legacies are their governmental systems, culture and arts, and science and technology. Classical Greece was a time where the growth of a community held strong through times of plague, wars, and numerous breakthroughs. A major legacy left by classical Greece was a government based on direct democracy. With a direct democracy, citizens ruled by majority vote. The citizenship was expanded to all free males, except foreigners. Those not considered citizens were women, slaves, and all foreigners. In 621 b.c.e., Draco, an Athenian lawmaker wrote the first legal code. In the legal code Draco dealt with contract and property ownership, it also included debt slavery. In classical Greece, citizens were also allowed to bring charges of wrong doing with a trial by jury. Direct democracy was a new innovation that not only changed the world, it also helped classical Greece become a great and powerful nation. Another legacy left by Greece was their culture and art. With their culture they created the Greek language. The Greeks also invented their mythology, which included gods and goddesses. Through myths, Greeks tried to understand the mysteries of nature and the power of human passion. God lived forever and Greeks attributed human qualities to them. The Olympic Games were originated in Greece around 776 b.c.e. They were dedicated to the god Zeus, the Greeks even suspended the wars between city-states so the athletes of the Olympics could compete. Philosophers, lovers of wisdom, were determined to seek the truth. There philosophy was based on two assumptions: (1) The universe (land, sky, and sea) is put together in an orderly way, and subject to absolute and unchanging laws, and (2) people can understand these laws through logic and reason. The three main philosophers of classical Greece are Socrates, Plato and Aristotle. The arts of classical Greece had a different flair than any other civilization. The Greeks invented both drama and built the first theaters in the west. Statues in Greece depicted their gods and goddesses in idealized human form, their faces neither showed laughter or anger, only serenity. Athena, goddess of wisdom, is found in the Parthenon, dressed in full battle armor, holding a six-foot high figure of victory. The Parthenon is a masterpiece of not only craftsmanship, but also design. Artisans built the 23,000 square ft. building with the traditional style that had been used several hundred years before. Classical Greece’s art and culture inspired Greeks to pursue their life as a privilege.

Friday, July 19, 2019

Paradise Lost Essay -- Literary Analysis, Bible, Adam and Eve, God

In Milton’s Paradise Lost, before the fall Adam and Eve live in harmony with one another, enjoy the provisions and comforts of nature, and have a direct relationship with God and the angels. Unimpeded with conflict, they live in innocence, working not out of necessity but to make their home beautiful, speaking not to clear up misunderstanding but for the pleasure of it, and anticipating a time when they will rise up to the order of angels and be favoured with a closer communion with God. The fall changes all this. Everything becomes more separated, more differentiated: there grows a distance between Adam and Eve, they can understand each other less and they argue more; nature is no longer harmonious but rather something to be wrestled and toiled with; what was once pleasurable and innocent might now be incontinent and evil; God and the angels no more indulge humankind with friendship and discourse but distance themselves and become almost inaccessible. Adam and Eve, raised on innocence and pleasure alone, have to learn how to live in this new world where nature is mutually incompatible with God. The first thing Adam is taught is how to reason morally. Michael spends a lot of time showing Adam the image of death, lust, greed, disease, and other vices that are now to be a part of his world. When shown the image of lascivious festivities, Adam says â€Å"Much better seems this Vision, and more hope / Of peaceful days portends [†¦] Here Nature seems fulfilled in all her ends† (11.599-602). Adam is accustomed to the pleasures of paradise, and this idyllic scene reminds him of the times he enjoyed feasting with Raphael and sleeping with Eve. He believes that sex, once the pleasing and natural nightly activity, is still to be thought as such.... ...ey are now differentiated and divided. Once they shared in their labours, now they are given different roles; Eve is told to bear children and Adam to work the earth for sustenance. Adam and Eve are now to live divided in a world from which God has distanced himself, and in consequence they are distanced from Him as well. In the invocation of Book 9, the narrator said that prior to the fall God would sit indulgent with humankind, â€Å"permitting him the while / Venial discourse unblamed† (9.4-5). Now the discourse with heaven is no longer be unblamed. The lessons given by Michael stand in contrast to those of Raphael as much colder and formal; Raphael would sit with Adam and Eve and partake in their meal, while Michael stands with full armour and lectures Adam. Michael also criticizes Adam’s judgment on numerous occasions, correcting him for misguided interpretation.

In order for the customers to purchase the Nokia 6600 from the retailer, :: Business Management Studies

In order for the customers to purchase the Nokia 6600 from the retailer, Sales and customer service Task 1 Introduction A sales promotion may be defined as on attempt to create interest in and stimulate sales of a product or service by a non-standard activity in a limited period of time, or with a controlled amount of product (while stocks last) In many ways, a sales promotion is a link between advertising and direct selling. It gives the advertiser an extra benefit to draw to the consumers attention, persuading them to go to the shops, and it allows the manufacturer’s sales person to revitalize the interest of the retailer by having something new to discuss or offer. There are two types of promotion: * Trade promotions- manufacturers promoting to retailers and wholesalers. * Consumer promotions- manufacturers or retailers promoting to the final consumer. I will promote mobile phone Nokia 6600. It is important to understand that sales promotion includes more than just money off voucher on the pocket of a fast moving consumer goods (FMCG) In order for the customers to purchase the Nokia 6600 from the retailer, the latter has had to be persuaded to stock the product in the first place. For this to be achieved, I will have to educate its sales- force on the distinctive selling features of the product, which is Nokia 6600 in order to help it persuade the retailer to stock it. This is picture of Nokia 6600 Components of a sales promotion Firms often refer to promotion above the line and below the line. Above the line promotion is through independent media, such as television or newspapers. These allow firms to reach a wide audience easily. Most advertising is carried out above the line. Some advertising, however, is carried out by methods over which a firm has direct control, such as direct mailing. These and other direct methods of promotion (known as below the line promotion) Below the line promotion allows a firm to aim its marketing at consumers it knows are interested in the product. Above the line advertising in newspaper means that the promotion is seen by most of the readers, even though some will not be interested. With below the line promotions, firms are usually aiming their message at consumers who are either known to them or who have been chosen in advance. For example, direct mail advertisers will pick exactly which consumers they wish to send their mail to, rather than going for blanket coverage. Nokia 6600 sales promotion objectives are: * Increase awareness and interest * Achieve a switch in buying behavior from competitor brands * Incentive consumers of make a purchase of my brand Nokia 6600

Thursday, July 18, 2019

Benjamin Franklin

Preview Main Ideas: My speech is going to consist of some of his background which lead him to become the person he was, the role he played in U. S history, and some of his inventions that helped us come a long way. Body l. Main Idea: Benjamin Franklin was born on January 17, of 1706 and was one of seventeen children. Although Benjamin did not get much schooling, he enjoyed to read and write. He would them become an apprentice to his older brother James, who was a printer, composing pamphlets and selling them to the people. When Ben as only 15, his older brother had his own newspaper but wouldn't allow Ben to write for it.He was only an apprentice. The only way to get on that paper was to make up a name, which was â€Å"Silence Dogood†, and send his letters at night so he remained unknown. After some letters he finally admitted to being the owner of those letters which got James angry and Jealous. Once Benjamin could no longer take his brothers harassment he ran away to Philade lphia in 1723. In Philadelphia Ben found Jobs as a helper for many printers until he finally opened his own business. Once his business icked up and was able to retire, he then focused on science, experiments, and inventions which brings me to my next point.II. Main Idea: Franklin invented many things like bifocals, â€Å"the Franklin stove†, a flexible catheter, an odometer, a lightning rod and many more. He also had important concepts in meteorology and refrigeration. We do not take into consideration that many of these things have influenced other innovations that we have today therefore you must think of these inventions as roots. Many people use glasses to enhance their vision and you can thank Mr. Benjamin Franklin. I'm sure todays stoves and ovens are an evolution of his for all you cooks and bakers out there.People who suffer from kidney stones have to deal with a tremendous amount of pain, and back then the catheters were rigid, but again thanks to Ben with his flexi ble catheter it has eased some pain. Franklin did not necessarily invent the odometer as it dates back to the ancient times but he tweaked it to his own version and attached it by the wheel and rigged it to give him his this invention was placed on top of houses and building so that when lighting hits it oes down the rod connected to wires into the ground making the lighting harmless.And lastly Benjamin Franklin is an important man in political American history Ill. Main Idea: As he got older, politics became an interest to him. Franklin was a colonial representative for Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Georgia, and Massachusetts. He soon became a great leader in the American Revolution and started making his way to independence with many other breaking away from Great Britain. Franklin was elected to the Second Continental Congress and worked on a committee of five that elped to draft the Declaration of Independence. Although most of the writing of the Declaration of Independence is Thoma s Jefferson much of the contribution is Franklins. † As said in History. org Benjamin Franklin also helped write the Constitution of the United States which were laws for the new country. He went through a lot along with many other famous American figures to get us to where we are at, in a nation of freedom. Conclusion l. Summary/Recap Main Ideas : I have told you about Franklins a little about Franklins ackground, his inventions, and what he has done to make the country what it is today. Benjamin Franklin At the age of ten, his formal cooling had ended and his new life of self- taught knowledge began. He left Boston and devoted his time to books, becoming his older brother's apprentice In a Philadelphia printing store. By this time outrage against the British control was on an upswing and revolutionary liberal thought was in the air. This atmosphere created a space for innovative and forward thinkers Just like Franklin. Leaders emerged from the rough not because they climbed the verbal ladder to success but because it was necessary to fill the empty rolls of leadership In the new American society.America was calling for a new wave of forward thinkers and untapped potential In the new world's best leaders. Benjamin Franklins life story is a testament to this. His inept potential was arguably not uncommon but the situation and life he was apart of facilitated his rise from humble beginnings to one of the most historically significant American dreamers to date. His autobiography gives in sight to his life. An â€Å"important aspect of the American Dream theme in the Autobiography is the rise from Impotence to importance, from dependence to Independence, from helplessness to power. † O_ A.Leo Lemma 351) Though Benjamin Franklin Is the face of American innovation had he not the support of powerful individuals and progressiveness of the world in which he lived the innovative American environment would have produced another progressive thinker to fuel the flame of progression through innovation equally as renowned to his historical stature. (American Environment at the time provided all supplies needed for a man Like BE to become a legend. ) (America made BE, BE didn't make America. ) Environment- Ben Franklin was a leader not unorthodox to have untraditional educationLife of the normal 18th century colonist was fraught with an uneven match of control from Britain such as the Stamp Act and Tea tax that citizens of the new world were In complete support of break i n relationship from control of Britain. Free market systems were heavily encouraged In the U. S. During this time. The general education of the population of this time was minimal. Young Benjamin was brought up by a humble household who had the goal and aspirations of sending their youngest son to Harvard for the goal of going into the ministry.This fell flat due to finical reasons, UT during this time a formal education was not commonplace. Real ‘higher level' education was just being developed under the new government in the U. S. During the sass's, literacy rates were as high as ever being at 75% of all males and 65% for very uncommon due to modern day rules and regulations but this was definitely not the case in the early sass's. Benjamin Franklin is a great example of the fact that one does not need a formal education to succeed, and also another influential person whom Benjamin Franklin knew during this time also did not have a formal education as Thomas Edison.He ended up being home-schooled primarily and then eventually Joined the railroad at the age of 12, so during this time a formal education was not something that was absolutely necessary. Relationships w/ innovators- flourishing in environment through relationships he was supplied w/ money and power, giving him a sense of worth and importance that allowed him to bring his innovations into fruition. During this time of progression Benjamin Franklin was not alone in his felt of changing traditional thought.Throughout his life he made it a point to seek out other individuals of importance and power to allow him to be among men that will create change in traditional thought. Among these men were John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, George Washington, and James Madison who will later be called the forefathers of America. Provided these relationships that Franklin created it gave him the support that was necessary for his innovations to be known (celebrity). He carefully and deliberately became friends w ith wealthy and powerful people to elevate his social status. Quote) Counterargument- BE as a person- Proportioning self-improvement set him apart from nee Americans. Even in today's society he was revered for his scientific studies + forward thinking. He wasn't exceptional Just for his name. Conclusion- People born into poverty, given everything but can't follow through opportunity to shine/ creatively suppressed, not supported be of way of the world is in a dif environment. Restate thesis Throughout Benjamin Franklins life one can see a constant feeling or urge to better himself.He was brought up in a time when there were many new ideas and free-thinking liberties to be had, and Benjamin took full advantage of them. From his mumble beginnings, Franklin created wealth and prosperity for himself. An important aspect of the American Dream theme in the Autobiography is the rise from impotence to importance, from dependence to independence, from helplessness to power. † 0. A. Leo Lemma 351) Americans revere Benjamin Franklin as one of the most prolific minds of the modern age. But he came from a very meager family.He was born the 1 lath son of the family to a chandler and a housewife. He was pushed very much to become a priest and go to Harvard which would prepare him for the ministry, but his mother and father loud not financially afford for him to attend. He also had his own skepticism about his faith which clouted his ambitions. He reconsidered and decided at the age of 12 to attend another school for basic reading and writing. Around this time Benjamin showed a great interest in books and he ended being arranged as an apprentice under his brother at a printer.His life was created by these books and printing were Just the beginning. Throughout his childhood he became very much interested in learning new things picking up the violin, the guitar and other instruments. He taught himself German, French, and Latin. Through his work-ethic he advised more and m ore Franklins young life: Franklin as starting out on his own: Becoming more influential: thinking. The â€Å"New World† was being created as Benjamin grew, and with that, offered many incredible opportunities to him or to anyone who was bold enough to grasp them.Franklin was no ordinary man. Throughout his life he focused all of his efforts on becoming the best person he could be. Growing up the son of a poor chandler and soap maker he committed himself to becoming a wise learned mind, focusing mentally, physically, and philosophically. Granted, through his time and effort described in his autobiography he created many great situations for himself to develop into one of the wisest minds of the modern thought, but he tended to fall into many situations where he seemed to be in the right place at the right time.During this period of progression the leaders of this new world were being brought out to the fore-front, even if they seems not to be deserving of the role. Benjamin F ranklin poses the essence of the â€Å"self-made† man. Throughout his autobiography he shows us that it isn't always the position that you were born in that creates who we re, but instead, it is our outright curiosity and work-ethic that helps us travel through life and will potentially/eventually lead us to power/wealth/happiness/life satisfaction.An â€Å"important aspect of the American dream theme in the Autobiography is the rise from impotence to importance, from dependence to independence, from helplessness to power. † 0. A. Leo Lemma) Ben Franklin was not completely unaided in his endeavors. He worked incredibly hard for self- improvement and to better himself, but he Just seemed to continually be in the right place at the right time. Benjamin Franklin Benjamin Franklin made the proposition that his friends and himself consider pooling together their respective books in a common place to facilitate ease and convenience of use by all members. Franklin made this suggestion at a meeting that his Book Club was having at Mr. Grace’s house. In explaining the rationale behind his proposal, Franklin added that by placing the books at a single central location, all the members would have the opportunity of having access to every other book that is owned by their colleagues.After considering this suggestion, Franklins’ Book Club members agreed to it. Consequently, each member brought their books until an entire room was completely filled up with various books. Afterwards, following the apparent halting of the aforementioned book pooling arrangement, Franklin began organizing for the setting up of a subscription library. This entity was soon registered in the name of North American subscription libraries, thus marking the genesi s if the library. The following quote illustrates this process.‘About this time, our club meeting, not at a tavern, but in a little room of Mr. Grace's, set apart for that purpose, a proposition was made by me, that, since our books were often referr'd to in our disquisitions upon the queries, it might be convenient to us to have them altogether where we met, that upon occasion they might be consulted; and by thus clubbing our books to a common library, we should, while we lik'd to keep them together, have each of us the advantage of using the books of all the other members, which would be nearly as beneficial as if each owned the whole.It was lik'd and agreed to, and we fill'd one end of the room with such books as we could best spare’ (Franklin, 2006). Following the establishment of the library, Franklin as well as his society was able to engage each other on a more informed level. This is because as members read their colleagues’ books, they developed relevant questions that were presented to those colleagues, thus enhancing academic discourse. Explain Franklin's quest for moral perfection. What process did he use?How successful was he? Which virtues did he find the most challenging to maintain? What was meant by his saying, â€Å"a speckled ax is best? By the term ‘moral perfection,’ Franklin meant the quality of always being able to avoid being engaged in evil things. In addition, the phrase has to do with the humanly habit of always doing what is good or righteous. The succeeding statement illustrates this concept. ‘It was about this time I conceiv'd the bold and arduous project of arriving at moral perfection.I wish'd to live without committing any fault at any time; I would conquer all that either natural inclination, custom, or company might lead me into’ (Icon Reference, 2006). Considering the arduous process through which Franklin went as he pursued ‘moral perfection,’ I should say that he recorded considerable success in his quest. For instance, he noted that authors and commentators had lumped together numerous words to describe various virtues, thus making the virtues’ meanings blurred. He thus simplified the virtues by having succinct explanations for each.It is thus evident that Franklin was significantly successful in this endeavor. Franklin found maintaining the virtue of temperance very demanding sine eternal vigilance was required in order to ward off the numerous temptations that keep occurring. By the ‘a speckled ax is best’ phrase, Franklin meant that it is better for someone to be seen to be trying to observe morality despite the many impediments than for one to completely give in to evil inclinations. By struggling against evil, a person will have both bad and good faces, a situation that Franklin lauded.Was Franklin a religious man? Why, or why not? Provide specific evidence to support your conclusions. Based on his discourse as it i s presented through his autobiography, Franklin was a man who valued and respected religious ideas. For example, as he describes his experiences while in England, Franklin mentions a certain traveling doctor who maliciously distorted the Bible’s message. Considering the bad character that Franklin attributes to this doctor, it is evident that Franklin was a spiritual man.To illustrate, Franklin terms the doctor as ‘an unbeliever’ and a ‘wicked’ man. Such negative terms show that Franklin was unenthusiastic towards this malicious doctor primarily based on what the doctor did to the Bible. This viewpoint, through which Franklin explains his displeasure with the doctor’s action, shows that Franklin had religious roots. The succeeding phrase explains this idea. I imagine, an itinerant doctor, for there was no town in England, or country in Europe, of which he could not give a very particular account.He had some letters, and was ingenious, but much of an unbeliever, and wickedly undertook, some years after, to travestie the Bible in doggrel verse, as Cotton had done Vir gil. By this means he set many of the facts in a very ridiculous light, and might have hurt weak minds if his work had been published; but it never was (Bigelow, 2009). Further, Franklin mentions that he observed the Christian Lent ritual, thus showing that he had religious foundations. This concept is evident from the fact that Lent is usually celebrated by Christians, especially the Roman Catholic believers.The ‘I have since kept several Lents most strictly, leaving the common diet for that, and that for the common, abruptly, without the least inconvenience’ illustrates this religious inclination (Franklin, 2006). References Bigelow, J. (2009). The autobiography of Benjamin Franklin. Charleston, SC: BiblioBazaar, LLC. Franklin B. (2006). The autobiography of Ben Franklin. Sioux Falls, SD: NuVision Publications, LLC. Icon Reference. (2006). The a utobiography of Benjamin Franklin (Webster's Spanish Thesaurus Edition). San Diego, CA: ICON Group International, Incorporated.