Monday, September 30, 2019

Paradoxes of Culture and Globalization Essay

Have you ever told someone that you are not a â€Å"mind reader† and you need them to specifically state their needs or what they are wanting? Or the opposite situation where you were able to tell what a person was going to say even before they even said a word? These examples illustrate differences between low and high context communication styles. People have a dominate way they prefer to communicate and cultures define these styles. There are differences in the way high and low-context culture members behave and interact with each other. However, there are times and situations where an individual will flex their style based on the situation at hand. In the end, both styles can be an effective way to communicate in the proper situation or context. A low-context culture is one that is explicit in its communication, orally and in writing. These cultures tend to be dominant individualistic cultures such as white, Anglo-Saxon Americans and Germans. In these cultures there is a desire to be very clear about communicating what they mean to ensure that there is a common understanding with other parties. For example in a low context culture, successful project managers and the teams will be very clear with deadlines and deliverables, such as the 2 page summary report will be due on Tuesday at 1pm. A person that favors a low context culture will appreciate the clarity in goals and expectations. Societies that favor low context communication are also seen as monochronic. These people find comfort in doing one thing at a time, make time commitments, are accustomed to short-term relationships, and stick to plans. An example of a profession that tends to be low-context is engineering. There is a saying that many engineers can easily relate to: â€Å"A place for everything and everything in its place†. This saying implies a high need for organization. I have worked on assignments with several engineers that get easily frustrated when details of the project or product change mid-stream due to a shift in the marketplace or a customer request. The feedback that is given to me from a few of the engineers is that it is difficult to deliver a project on-time when things change. However, without the change, the project may not achieve its overall goal: to satisfy the customer’s need. This is a prime example of how low-context cultures prefer to be very specific. They favor very clear, specific, and fixed objectives. On the other hand, high context cultures communicate in an implicit manner where members understand the message without direct oral or written communication. Mexico and Japan are examples of high-context cultures. People in these cultures have a difficult time refusing a direct request or disagreeing with others in public. There is a heightened sense to not embarrass others or to be embarrassed in these cultures. These cultures also are more polychronic. People that are polychronic are flexible with time commitments, are easily distracted, tend to form deep and long relationships, and value relationships over deadlines. Working with high-context cultures can feel very difficult for low-context individuals that are not aware of the difference in styles. Based on my personal experience when dealing with a high-context cultures and individuals, I have had many challenges because I was not aware of the culture difference. The challenges developed because I was not aware that the group may have been avoiding difficult conversations. For example, I thought that I had agreement from others in a Mexican factory with clear deadlines and deliverables for a project. Only later to find out that they thought our agreement was more of a â€Å"target† or a guideline for them to work towards. Deadlines were often missed by weeks even with weekly meetings confirming deliverables and deadlines. Another example using a similar context that I have had is when asking a team member from China and Mexico a question such as â€Å"are we on-schedule or ahead of schedule† and getting a reply of â€Å"yes† because it’s difficult for them to reply with an answer they may feel with disappoint me if the project is behind schedule. This can prove to be detrimental to a project if it’s unclear the project is behind schedule. However, a great attribute of high-context teams is their willingness to be flexible. They can also leverage their strong relationships with others to get tasks accomplished effectively. Both high and low context cultures will change their style based on certain circumstances and situations. I have personally seen communication styles flexed in contract negotiations. Many contract negotiations that I have been involved in have a final written document that both parties can use to refer back to at later times to understand the original agreement. This document is very explicit in nature and has specifically defined terms and language. This is an example of a low-context form of communication that high context cultures use even if it may be more comfortable to go through the negotiations using more high-context communication and strategies such as talking through ideas and feeling the other party out using social environment situations. On the other hand, an example of low-context individuals using high context tactics may happen is when couples are dating. Very few emotions or expectations are communicated explicitly early on in the relationship but yet even low-context individuals can â€Å"read between the lines† about another person’s feelings or emotions during the courtship phase. Another example of high-context communication that can be used by low-context cultures is the use of silence. This can be a very powerful tactic to encourage others to say more than they might normally say to break the silence or if they are assuming you are waiting for more information before responding. Silence can be a negotiators’ best friend when used appropriately to gather more information from other side. The Japanese have been known to use silence or length of pauses to communicate messages such as disagreement or rejection of an offer. In summary, high and low context cultures can behave in very different, almost opposite, ways when communicating. However, each can and will use other others’ style in different situation. The key for effective communication is to understand the other’s contextual style and be ready to be flexible to change your style as needed. Both low and high-context styles can be used to communicate well and neither is better than the other.

Sunday, September 29, 2019

Immigration Essay

Annie Moore the 1st immigrant to ever go through Ellis Island back when it was first opened. After being accepted and given the right to stay and live in the United States she stayed in New York where there was a large hub of Irish immigrants just as herself. After being the first of many to go through the gates at Ellis Island. Supposedly there were around 4 million other Irish folks who left their shores in Ireland to New York. So when she arrived at 1 7 years of age with her brothers Anthony and Philip and her went looking for their parents who were already here at the time.As she spent more time living there she became more and more American and at one point a citizen. After the 19th Amendment was ratified she was then allowed to vote. All of the women of the United States couldn't be happier, they were finally given what they had fought for, for a very long time. Alcohol and its abolition was a very important matter at the time. People were all debating whether to get rid of it or too keep it. She then later campaigned for the abolition of alcohol because she was now able to vote she decided to make her vote count and voted for the abolition of alcohol and it later was abolished.The problem was that since people still wanted it badly a black market for it began and it was the beginning of organized crime. Later as she grew older she got married and the city at the time was very overcrowded and the living conditions weren't the greatest but they had to cope with it because there was no where else they could live. Also working in the factory that was located on the other side of town she had to travel a lot to work everyday. Not only that but the conditions of work were horrid. The employers didn't care about their well-being just about the job being done. Immigration Essay Annie Moore the 1st immigrant to ever go through Ellis Island back when it was first opened. After being accepted and given the right to stay and live in the United States she stayed in New York where there was a large hub of Irish immigrants just as herself. After being the first of many to go through the gates at Ellis Island. Supposedly there were around 4 million other Irish folks who left their shores in Ireland to New York. So when she arrived at 1 7 years of age with her brothers Anthony and Philip and her went looking for their parents who were already here at the time.As she spent more time living there she became more and more American and at one point a citizen. After the 19th Amendment was ratified she was then allowed to vote. All of the women of the United States couldn't be happier, they were finally given what they had fought for, for a very long time. Alcohol and its abolition was a very important matter at the time. People were all debating whether to get rid of it or too keep it. She then later campaigned for the abolition of alcohol because she was now able to vote she decided to make her vote count and voted for the abolition of alcohol and it later was abolished.The problem was that since people still wanted it badly a black market for it began and it was the beginning of organized crime. Later as she grew older she got married and the city at the time was very overcrowded and the living conditions weren't the greatest but they had to cope with it because there was no where else they could live. Also working in the factory that was located on the other side of town she had to travel a lot to work everyday. Not only that but the conditions of work were horrid. The employers didn't care about their well-being just about the job being done.

Saturday, September 28, 2019

Advantages And Disadvantages Of Charlotte Accepting The Job Commerce Essay

Advantages And Disadvantages Of Charlotte Accepting The Job Commerce Essay The advantages of Charlotte accepting job is can focus the experience and expertise. This is because Charlotte can focus in their job that he like to do. Whereas the advantages of Charlotte accepting job is the demand on the manager’s time is high, ambiguous and uncertain operating environments and resistance to change is low. QUESTION 2 Explain the change in roles and skills of management that charlotte has to play and have with her position. Charlotte firstly worked as machine operator its roles just be a staff that work at lower levels her has little experience and knowledge. She had interpersonal roles work at Coccob four year and she has opportunities be a plant supervisor. She are good employees doesn’t missed work at four year work and she had one of the high quality and quantity in organizations .she had the technical skill is the ability to utilize tools ,techniques and procedures that are specific to a particular fields. In additions,, charlotte had the human skill is the ability to work effectively with others and she had the conceptual skill that the ability to analyze complex situations like she can suitable with position that its take. QUESTION 3 Describe how Charlotte might expect to be involved in performances of the four management functions. Management process are an administrative activities aimed at defining a process, establishing responsibilities, evaluating process performance and identifying opportunities for improvement. Management process is including the four processes that is planning, control, leading and organization. Planning process can be define as a process or activities that setting a goal or list the actions necessary to achieve one goals. when charlotte become the plant supervisor, indirectly she has involve in planning process. This is because as a supervisor, she was responsible with the development and performances of company, where she was working. As a plant supervisor, she has to do a schedules work assi gnments for the junior employees to make sure the junior employees was doing their work accordingly and in systematic ways. Charlotte has to plan an schedule for her junior employees. Next process is the organizational process where the plant supervisor need to determined the task to be done, people or employees that responsible with that task and how that task will be managed and coordinated. Charlotte is responsible to organize the schedule or task to be given to the junior employees. Charlotte must ensure that, the information about the task must be stated clearly to the junior employees in order to make sure they can know what they really have to do. Next is, the leading process. As a plants supervisor, charlotte also have to leading the junior employees such as gives them motivate in order to make sure, the goal of the company can be archive. A leader must has the ability to motivate people, know the employee behavior and also has an communication effectiveness in order to make sure information can be shared to all of the people effectively. Charlotte also must be able to show the leadership quality and must be able to solve any problem. The last one process is control. Control can be define as process of controlling or monitoring the performance of the organization and its progress in implementing strategic and operational plans. Charlotte has to control the employees performances, in order to make sure that the performance can lead to the organization goals.

Friday, September 27, 2019

Mart -to- Market Accounting Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 1

Mart -to- Market Accounting - Essay Example as been discussed and debated very thoroughly that the mark to market accounting is basically responsible for the creation of the current financial crisis. This method of accounting affected the value of the companies during the current financial crisis because with the crash in the property market, the values of the assets held by the firms also declined in their value. As per mark to market accounting procedures, firms were required to record their assets at new values and book the losses arising due to the reduction in the value of these assets. As a result of this, firms recorded heavy losses and their company values started to decline thus creating financial crisis. 3) It has been argued that the mark to market accounting does not work when markets are basically inactive and illiquid. (Katz). In such situation, it is therefore proposed that the rules regarding the mark to market process shall be suspended in order to provide more flexibility to the

Thursday, September 26, 2019

Why Quants Dont know Everything Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Why Quants Dont know Everything - Research Paper Example According to Felix Salmon, for any discipline or industry, the rise of quants happens in four stages: Pre-disruption – Any industry is ripe for quantitative analysis wherever there may be huge amounts of data that has never been mined. There is untapped potential and realizations in the data, and what it may tell us. This prospect for quantification qualifies an industry to be in a pre-disruption stage. Disruption – After the industry has been identified for quantification, the next step is to collect and collate all the data available and start analyzing the data. This is where the algorithms start to take over. For example, the moment you start to receive targeted and personalized offers for credit cards and other financial services, solely based on computations, according to your finances and credit worthiness, instead of a relationship with your bank. This is a common phenomenon which leaves most of us wondering â€Å"How do the banks get my number and why do they think I will need a credit card, or a personal loan?† etc. Overshoot – This is when people stop thinking like people and start thinking like machines. Analytics spend hours doing calculations, forming algorithms and come up with readable, identifiable data sheets or metrics charts which can be further processed in the synthesis phase. Synthesis – It is the practice of marrying quantitative insights with old-fashioned subjective experience. Once you have the quantified data for the relevant industry, analytics would do brainstorming based on their experience with consumers as to how the stats could be applied to which consumer group and how the consumers can be identifies as prospective users of upcoming products. b) There are many industries which are not yet quantified and given a chance they can flourish with the right analysis. One of the industries which will be ripe for the next breakthrough

Ducati Customer Perception and Brand Loyalty Essay

Ducati Customer Perception and Brand Loyalty - Essay Example The research has been divided into different parts and each part is important to achieve the research aim and objectives in a significant and desired manner. There is no denying that loyalty is dependent on satisfaction and when customers are satisfied, there is every chance of them becoming loyals making it easy for organsiations to retain them for a long period of time. The research aims at identifying the loyalty and trust of Ducati customers in a critical and logical manner along with understanding what exactly influence and impact their loyalty in the short as well as in the long run. The research covers different aspects of customer loyalty and customer perception with prime focus on Ducati as a brand appealing a number of customers across the world. Pomerantz defined perception as a process of attaining awareness or understanding environments by interpreting information. This statement is based on normal human psychology that can be related to the customer perception. Customer perception is a process that is based on the information collected from wide arrays of sources and resources. It can be the case that customers using the existing product or service may create awareness along with changing the level of perception about that particular product or service. Organisations need to understand the perception of customers in order to market their products and services along with offering them something that will exceed the level of perceived perception (Alan, Gary, 2011) The research aims at identifying the perception of Ducati customers through questionnaires in order to understand their views and opinions highlighting their loyalty and trust factor for the motorcycle brand. The research has been divided into different parts and each part is important to achieve the research aim and objectives in a significant and desired manner. There is no denying that loyalty is dependent on satisfaction and when customers are satisfied, there is every chance of them b ecoming loyals making it easy for organsiations to retain them for a long period of time (Jones, et al, 2002). The research aims at identifying the loyalty and trust of Ducati customers in a critical and logical manner along with understanding what exactly influence and impact their loyalty in the short as well as in the long run. The research covers different aspects of customer loyalty and customer perception with prime focus on Ducati as a brand appealing a number of customers across the world. 1.1: Research Background Customer perception decides their buying behavior to an extent. Considering the fact that good and valid perception about a product often creates a positive image that allures customers to get associated with that product or service in the short as well as in the long run. Customer perception can be considered as the first stage of buying behavior where there is a difference between the reality and perception. Until and unless, customers use the product; ascertaini ng the reality can be a cumbersome task offering irrelevant attention and importance to perception (Reichheld, 1993). Customers’ perceptions can be influenced through reference groups and opinion leaders but should offer desired and more than perceived results in order to create long term value and mutual benefits in the competitive business environment. Perception leads to interest and zeal that forms the foundation of accepting products and services. On the other hand brand loyalty is consumers’

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Community Population Health Issues Research Paper

Community Population Health Issues - Research Paper Example These include, alcohol related deaths, wide spread health disorders, chronic diseases, alcohol related road accidents, domestic violence, reduced productivity in the community, deteriorating levels of education, and social disorder. In addition, the treads of alcohol consumption is also a demerit arising from this health issue in my community. Sadly, these alcohol related demerits spread over to the family and relatives of the alcoholic. As such, the alcohol-drinking problem equally propagates marital problems, cases of child abuse, and criminal activities as people seek to satisfy their addiction. Notable, is the fact that the few women who take alcohol while pregnant manifest adverse effects creating health and social disorder in my community. As such, alcoholism is the top public health issue in my community and warrants quick address. Nevertheless, it is disputable that alcoholism sprung in my community due to lack, quality, and access of health care. Indeed, the habit to indulge in alcohol is usually a personal decision among the adults or the effect of peer pressure among the youths. However, we lack enough well-established health and rehabilitation centers to address this problem. Indeed, there is little community awareness on the effects of alcoholism in my community and everybody is a witness to the prevalence of this problem. As such, various agencies can assist in addressing this issue. They may include the government through relevant agencies, non-governmental organizations that deal with drug and substance abuse campaigns, the police, the traffic department, counselors, and rehabilitation centers. These agencies and discipline forces can achieve this by undertaking a community mobilization initiative to create awareness on alcoholism and its adverse effects (National Center for Biotechnology Information Web). To curb alcohol drinking among students and other teens, the

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

American History Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words - 1

American History - Essay Example The Treaty of Versailles involved a peace agreement signed after First World War had ended in the late 1918 and in the gumshoe of the Russian Revolution among other events in Russia. Versailles treaty got signed at the massive Versailles Palace close to Paris - hence its name - between Germany and Allies. Present was David Lloyd George, Woodrow Wilson and Georges Clemenceau. Many wanted Germany, led by Friedrich Ebert, shattered - others, like Lloyd George, remained privately more cautious. Ku Klux Klan, regularly abbreviated KKK and informally called â€Å"the Klan†, is the name of 3 distinct present and past far – right organizations in the US which have supported extremist reactionary currents such as white nationalism, anti - immigration and white supremacy, historically expressed through terrorism. The first Klan thrived in the Southern US in the late 1860s; it then collapsed by early 1870s. Members embraced white costumes: robes, conical hats and masks, designed to be odd and terrifying, and to conceal their identities. The second KKK thrived countrywide in the mid and early 1920s, and embraced the same code words and costumes as the first Klan, however, introducing cross burnings. Lusitania was a ship that sunk in the First World War by German U - boats. The ship was an English ship made by the Cunard lines and is considered by many people as a major motive the USA engaged in WW1. It used to be a passenger vessel and hence should not have involved as a military target; however, it got suspected that England used the ship to illegally sneak in explosives from America into the country. Over 1000 people died the night of the sinking many of them being Americans and that remained one of the causes that made US go to war in Europe. Pearl Harbor got attacked by the Japanese Imperial General quarters as a surprise military strike directed

Monday, September 23, 2019

Military Pay Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Military Pay - Assignment Example In order to carryout this research, some of the resources that must be carried include electronics e.g. a laptop and mobile phone. Laptop will help in recording and storing information collected from the informants. This is a reliable storage facility because information is permanently stored. Writing materials are very essential when carrying out research. This is because the activity involves lots of recording. The researcher notes down information gathered from the informant in a notebook. These are mainly short notes that are later expounded when compiling data. Biro pens should also be enough for the number of people intended to fill the questionnaires.According to Nasu (2009), money is a major resource. In order to carry out any research, the researcher should ensure that he/she has enough funds. Most of the activities need money. For instance, money is needed to cater for transport purposes. In order to collect reliable data, the researcher should collect data in different reg ions and from different military officers then compare. Money is needed to cater for food and accommodation. What and where the researcher will eat, rest and sleep has to be paid for. The researcher should have enough airtime to feed their mobile phone to enable communications to take place, pay assistants who help in carrying out research as well as be in a position to cater for his and their medical needs. I will buy some gifts to motivate the informants. Finally, I will have the questionnaire and survey questions. that will be used to carry out the survey at hand. Personnel In order to carry out this research successfully, I have to hire somebody who will assist me carryout various activities. For instance, he/she will help me in distributing questionnaires to informants and collecting them after they have been filled. The research assistant will help in collection and documentation of data. Secondly, I will need somebody to help me go through areas I may not be familiar with. During data collection, I will visit different areas some which I may never have been before and that is why I may need somebody’s assistance. It may be difficult to access some of the areas I will have to visit because of poor or lack of roads. In this case I will need somebody to take me there through other means like motorbikes or animal transport like camels. Finally, I will need somebody to type and print the report after data collection and analysis has been completed (Orakhelashvili, 2011)

Sunday, September 22, 2019

Human Homeostasis Essay Example for Free

Human Homeostasis Essay What was the highest air temperature you had to deal with? 35degrees Celcius H. How did you respond to this temperature? Removed clothing, stopped exercising, and increased sweating. I. What was the lowest air temperature in the simulation? -10 degrees Celcius J. How did you maintain a constant body temperature at this time? Increased exercising, stopped sweating, added all clothing K. 8. Think and discuss: Other than the options available in the Human Homeostasis Gizmo, what other methods are used to maintain body temperature? Try to think of both voluntary and involuntary responses. Panting to release energy and reduce heat.

Friday, September 20, 2019

How the economy was affected by the bubonic plague.

How the economy was affected by the bubonic plague. Medieval people called the catastrophe of the l4th century the Great Pestilence. The Black Death is the name later given to the epidemic of plague that took Europe by storm, between 1347andl35l (C. Warren Hollister). The Black Death is categorized into three specific types of plague: bubonic plague (infection in the lymph nodes, or buboes), pneumonic plague(the infection in the lungs),and septicemic plague(the infection in the blood and the most deadly of the three). Scientists and historians at the beginning of the 20th century assumed that the Black Death was an outbreak of the same diseases, caused by a bacterium called Yersinia pestis and spread by fleas with the help of Animals like the black rat. Once infected by the Yersinia pestis bacterium, Death could be very quick for the weaker victims. It is estimated that victims would die within three to seven days(Knox). However, this view has recently been questioned by some scientists and historians, (Kelly)and some researchers believe that the illness was, in fact, a viral hemorrhagic fever based on epidemiological interpretation of historical records of the spread of disease. (Lavelle) The plague affected every part of life. Depopulation and shortage of labor rushed changes already built into the rural economy; the substitution of wages for labor services was accelerated, and social stratification became less rigid (Knox). Psychological illness affected the arts; in religion, the lack of educated personnel among the clergy gravely Reduced the churchs hold. [n less than four years the disease carved a path of death Through Asia, Italy, France, North Africa, Spain and Normandy, made its way over the Alps into Switzerland, and continued eastward into Hungary(C. Warren Hollister). After a small break, the plague continued crossing the channel into England, Scotland, and Ireland, and eventually made its way into the northern countries of Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Iceland and even as far north as Greenland. In other words, the plague touched almost the entire known world. (C. Warren Hollister) So much death could not help but tear economic and social structures apart. Figures for the death toll vary widely by area and from source to source as new research and discoveries come to light. It killed an estimated 75-2OO million people in the l4th century (Philipkoski). Lack of peasants and laborers sent wages soaring, and the value of land took a serious downfall. For the first time in history the odds were against wealthy landlords as peasants and serfs gained more bargaining power. Without architects, masons and artisans, great cathedrals and castles remained unfinished for hundreds of years. Governments, lacking officials, floundered in their attempts to create order out of chaos.(Knox) Those that were still alive lost all sense of morality and justice, and a new attitude toward the church surfaced. Many saw the plague as a form of punishment from God. Medieval people could find no Divine reason for the four-year nightmare, and dissatisfaction with the church was the driving force to reform movements that, in the end, broke apart the amalgamation of the Catholic Church.(Knox) The middle l4th century was not a good time for Europe. The European economy was already seeing hardships. It was inching towards the limits of expansion, both on its frontiers and in regaining land from forest and swamp (Knox).The entry of the Mongols and the Ottomans caused confusion in trade routes, and certain areas of Europe were on the verge of depression. The Church was also in poor shape. The popes resided at Avignon, not at Rome, to the scandal of many. Blasphemy could be found in England and Bohemia and southern France, and the Church seemed unable to control it. (Kelly) The Holy Land had been lost in the 1290s and efforts to recover it had been Dismal failures. The Black Death intensified the strains of war and a tightened economy. (Knox) There is a relationship here, of course. The effects of the plague were made worse because of these other problems. And the problems themselves were redoubled because of the plague. The Jewish population was another problem. In multiple villages, the common people placed the blame on the Jewish community. Hundreds of Jews were accused of poisoning wells and put to the question, medieval code for torture, and burned. When the Black Death raged through the German lands between 1348 and 1352, over 300 Jewish communities were either destroyed or expelled from their homelands. (class lecture) There was a substantial change in Europes demography because of the Black Death. Birth rates were also at an all time low. The net result was that by 1400, Europes population was half what it had been in 1345. Many medieval church, census, and tax records that have survived show some accuracy of this. Europes population took about six generations to recover.(Knox) The cities were really affected by the plague. Financial business was disrupted as those who borrow died, their creditors have no one to pay them back. There was simply no one to collect from. Construction projects stopped for a time or were abandoned altogether. Guilds lost their craftsmen and could not replace them. There was no industry unaffected by the plague.(Knox) The most immediate effect of the plague here was the severe shortage in labor, consequently, wages rose. Because of the mortality, there was an oversupply of goods, and so prices dropped. As a result the standard of living rose for those still living. With the post-Plague labor shortage, many nobles tried to reverse the process in order to keep their land under cultivation and their income up. Free tenants were taking advantage of the labor shortage to demand better terms from their landlords and that the nobles were reluctant to see their incomes but the labor reduced. Governments tried to fix wages, shortage was irresistible. (The plague video) The Plague caused many peasants to demand a restructuring of society, often religious based. Democracy was in high demand and with it a limit of aristocratic rights and privileges. When ideas of democracy were dismissed, many commoners rose in rebellion. All of the rebellions were unsuccessful A land rent system, with the freedom of the peasants was organized. This system still exists in many parts of Europe, although the desire of peasants to own their land eventually led to migration to places like Russia, Australia, Africa, and the Americas centuries later. Never was there enough land, and dividing it among the sons soon led to economic situations that were left unattended to.(Lavelle) Governments also had to adapt. Land was abandoned, rents were not paid, and tax Revenue declined. This had a drastic effect on the war, as the wages of mercenary soldiers increased while available tax revenue decreased by more than 50 percent. There was fewer trained soldiers available and those that were still around wanted a lot more money or simply had better financial prospects doing something else.(C. Warren Hollister) As a result of the Plague, the French converted to a system of paid, professional, army, whereas the English had been there and done that for quite sometime. Smaller armies were a result of lower taxes. The world after the plague was one of with more opportunity for the creative and capable individuals. While the Black Death killed off medieval society, it gave birth to the beginnings of our own industrialized consumer society.

Thursday, September 19, 2019

heroarms Frederick as a Code Hero in Ernest Hemingways A Farewell to Arms :: Hemingway A Farewell to Arms

Frederick as a Code Hero in Farewell to Arms It is the nature of the beast within that fuels our inclination towards conflict and destruction. During the surreal powers of war, life hangs in the balance setting the stage for an elite group of individuals who triumphantly rise above the rest amidst the chaos. As Ernest Hemingway illustrates in his book, Farewell to Arms, the character of Frederick Henry; an ambulance driver, is put to the ultimate test during the madness and atrocity of WWI. His experiences at the front pose a challenge only a Hemingway hero can affront successfully. As the epitome of a code hero, Frederick is a man of action, self-discipline, and one who maintains grace under pressure. Whenever the situation requires, Henry rises to the occasion taking control of potentially dangerous incidents with quick decision leaving no room for second thought. After Frederick is captured by the battle police, he foresees his inevitable death if no action was taken and instinctively escaped detainment. "I looked at the carabineri, they were looking at the newcomers. The others were looking a the colchel. I ducked down, pushed between two men, and ran for the river, my head down. I tripped at the edge and went in with a splash" (Hemingway, 214). Henry witnessed the gruesome executions of the officers before him and knew he was not going to die without a fight to preserve his precious existence. Being a man of action rather than words, was the determining factor which helped him survive this unfortunate confrontation with death. Regardless of the circumstances, Henry used his authoritative position to make sure others did not engage in any threatening positions that could jeopar dize their safety and the safety of others. When one of his ambulances got suck in the mud during a retreat, two sergeants simply tried to abandon the situation but Frederick stopped them in their tracks. "Halt, I said. They kept on down the muddy road, the hedge on either side. I order you to halt. I called. They went a little faster. I opened up my holster, took the pistol, aimed at the one who talked the most, and fired" (Hemingway, 195). The men were given an ample opportunity to obey Henry's commands and by ignoring them, it suggested that they were challenging their superior's authority. Such actions are not tolerated by Frederick as he was once again forced to take the initiative as his character is always compelled to do.

Lean Management :: Business, Manufacturing

Lean management is a thought process and a philosophy, not a tool, used to look at a business weather it is manufacturing, service or any other activity with a supplier and a customer relation with the goal of eliminating non-value added tasks (Womack, Jones, Ross, 1990). The principles of lean production include teamwork, communication, efficient use of resources and continuous improvement (Kaizen). It can be said that they pioneered the idea of applying the concepts outside of manufacturing environments. The objective of lean production is a system for organising and managing product development, operations, suppliers, and customer relation that requires less human effort, less space, less capital, less material and less time to make products with fewer defects to precise customer desires, compared with the previous system of mass production (Marchwinski & Shook, 2004). The concepts of both Ohno (1988) and Womack and Jones (2003) search for ways to reduce lead time by eliminating w aste it can be said that the terms â€Å"Lean† and â€Å"Toyota Production System† are synonymous. Lean management is not restricted to the actions that take place in the manufacturing function of a company, rather it relates to activities range from product development, procurement and manufacturing over to distribution. Together these areas create the lean enterprise. The ultimate goal of implementing lean production in an organization is to have the customer in focus when improving productivity, enhancing quality, shortening lead times, reducing costs etc. These are factors representing the performance of a lean production system. The determinants of a lean production system are the actions taken, the principles implemented and the changes made to the organization to achieve the desired performance (Karlsson & Ahlstrom, 1996) There are multiple ways to combine the individual practices to represent the multi-dimensional nature of lean manufacturing. In combining these practices, the researcher has to compete with the technique used to combine and the actual content of the combinations. The dominant method in operations management literature has been to use exploratory or confirmatory factor analysis to combine individual practices in a multiplicative function to form orthogonal and unidimensional factors (Flynn et al., 1995; Cua et al., 2001; Shah & Goldstein, 2006). A review of research from organization theory, and labour and human resource management shows less reliance on factor analysis and offers multiple ways for combining individual practices and creating an index. One such method is the additive index used by Osterman (1994) and MacDuffie (1995) in developing â€Å"bundles† of interrelated human-resource management practices.

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Marine Corps Uniform In The 21st Century :: essays research papers

The Marine Corps Commandant General James L. Jones wants to lead the Marines into the 21st century with a new camouflage utility uniform. You may ask, why do the Marines need to differentiate their uniform from other branches; or why do the Marines need a new utility uniform at all. The answer to these questions can be summed up in two words: Forward Movement. Some Marines are having difficulties with the changes that have occurred as well as the changes that are coming. On 1 May 2000 General Jones began to start the transition from the old uniform to the new uniform. Three steps have been taken to change the way Marines look while in their uniform. First, Marines were no longer authorized to wear the brown undershirt. This movement came about to distinguish the corps">Marine Corps as an amphibious branch. The Army Soldier is authorized to wear the brown undershirt, and the Air Force Airman wears a black undershirt. Secondly, a new belt for the utility uniform is currently being implemented. The belts represent the individual Marine’s status in Martial Arts training. The â€Å"rigger’s belt† will be worn in five different colors: Tan, Grey, Green, Brown, and Black. The Marine has an option to don a new color once training for that level has been completed. Finally, the third change involves the utility uniform itself, also known as â€Å"cammies†, giving it a complete makeover. The current cammie design for all branches of the Armed Forces is over twenty years old. The textile industry has made many advances in the production of clothing providing more comfort and durability. Revolutionary advances within the clothing industry, Velcro and zippers, are being tested on the new cammie uniform. Velcro could be used instead of buttons on the pockets, and zippers may replace the buttons on the fly of the trousers. While on garrison duty, zippers may also be used on the blouse, to unzip the arm portion of the sleeve, to avoid rolling up the sleeves in garrison duty during hotter climates. The basic pattern of the cammie uniform will have a face-lift as well. With the exception of angled chest pockets for easier accessibility, the new utilities will have the same design appearance as the today’s cammie uniform. New material that requires no ironing will increase the durability of the cammie material. The material will last longer than that of the current cammie material, which will normally fade in six months.

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Cultural Problems in International Business

Martinez Construction Company in Germany – Cultural Problems 2. 2. 1 PROBLEMS Cultural barriers to integration The considerable differences between the Spanish and German business practices could have been diminished through a sound pre-assesment made by Martinez Co. Since this understanding process was not pursued, a cultural conflict occured which may significantly hinder the processes of strategic and operational management of the two companies as a whole. The most important barriers of cultural dimension include: Barriers to cultural integration| Suggestion for limiting the impact| 1. Cultural shock’ as a consequence ofstrong cultural diversity of companiesconstituting a holding group;| Cultural transformation, respectingcultural values and customs of a targetcountry. | 2. ‘Cultural maladjustment’ of boardmembers delegated by a parent company;| Management through values, systems formonitoring social feelings of the targetcompany. | 4. Management style d ifferencesbetween companies. | Management through goals as a basisfor work appraisal of the managementpersonnel and employees| Financial issues Martinez Co. ’s representatives are involved in a process of Merger and Acquisition which they discover gradually.This means that they have allowed themselves to be unaware of the exact risks and implications, especially from the financial point of view, from the moment they accepted a contract that did not contain enough information related to this topic. Now they are facing unpredicted expenses, and the possibility of new ones to occur cannot be excluded. Ensuring that an acquisition is a good fit, not only on paper, but as an integrated business, calls for going beyond traditional financial assessments, to detailed value analysis, especially within an international business context. As Treuhandanstalt rushed the process and Martinez Co. imply went with the flow, requirements that should have been included in the contract are now th reatening the Spanish company’s financial capacities. 3. 2 Causes of the problems The problem regarding cultural contradiction became difficult to cross due to the following errors: -Martinez representatives’ did not make an appropriate due diligence as no research regarding business practices in Germany had been made. Juan Martinez was sent to conduct negotiation just because he was genuine and had a practical thinking, but his lack of information proved to have a great negative impact on the deal obtained. Their reasoning to expand in Germany is poor. Diego Martinez took into account only the fact that Germans enjoy Spanish atmosphere and often choose Spain as a target market for business. On the other hand, they did not take into account that differences in leadership approach and culture in general can affect their interest. It is very important to be aware that if companies from a specific country conduct successful affairs in your country, it does not necessarily mean that you will benefit from the same success there. The financial problem occurred mainly because some of the steps within negotiating the merger were skipped.Firstly, Martinez accepted to sign a contract without enough details about Konstrukt’s financial position. They requested, indeed, a Phase Contract which made Germans unclear and, moreover, gave them little perspective about future financial risks. In fact they bought a company without knowing exactly what they are getting. The second main contribution to the synergy’s financial issues was brought by Treuhandanstalt. Although THA must have focused on evaluating the firms, especially their financial soundness and the cost for the buyer, it had, in this case, as main concern the speed of transaction.Therefore, they pressured Martinez during this process, without focusing on future risks and arrangements for upgrade. 3. 3 Negative effects that occur If problems will not be solved The cultural dissonance will ha ve the following consequences: * Management will face severe problems in providing incentives for employees, therefore their productivity will go downwards; * Employees will become confused about their role in the company so their lack of initiative and responsibility will worsen.In addition, this synergy attempt will face challenges caused by financial problems: * The plans of stability and progress will be severely hampered in the case of Martinez Co. ; if they fail now, they will find it extremely hard to expand even on another foreign market (a financial fiasco would make Martinez unconfident and the idea of international expansion would definitely be seen as a peril). * Company might become insolvent if the new expenses emerged are not handled at time and properly. 3. SOLUTIONSCultural barriers – a first solution would be to map out the chain of command (employees must understand their exact role in the company and must be informed about the participative leadership appr oach specific to the Spanish company) –communication based * Strategic focus – agree on the goal (â€Å"enrichment†) and find the right cultural approach to achieve it ( certainty needed, more like Germans) * Mix useful elements from both cultures in such manner that leadership and employees can move together towards their goal ( keep the† all about work policy† but make them involve in decision making through incentives) Financial issues Cash injection , as expense on regulations is compensated by the opportunities offered on this new market ( raw materials at hand, low wages required and brown field investment advantages) *Assess the co’ future growth rate and profitability in order to understand if the acquisition is a good option * Require a renegotiation of the contract, which should imply these extra- expenses. 4. CHOOSING the OPTIMAL SOLUTION . Culture – Mix useful elements from both cultures in such manner that leadership and em ployees can move together towards their goal ( keep the† all about work policy† but make them involve in decision making through incentives) * b. Financial – Assess the co’ future growth rate and profitability in order to understand if the acquisition is a good option ( discuss with third parties and experts) . IMPLEMENTING the OPTIMAL SOLUTION a. Communication: employees must be informed about policies adopted, about their role exactly. This way, they will be less inclined to reject the new management and their approach. b. Studies of the market ( it has potential since raw materials are available an also is labor) , discussion with experts and third parties.

Monday, September 16, 2019

Comparison of Homelessness in the U.S and South Africa Essay

The term homelessness has a very wide scope and many different agencies and governments attempt to define it differently. The homeless committee of the city of Montreal adopted some definition of the homeless. Casavant (1999) further translates the definition as â€Å"a person with no fixed address, stable, safe and healthy housing for the next 60 days, an extremely low income, adversely discriminated against in access to services, with problems of mental health, alcohol and drug abuse or social disorganization, and not a member of any stable group,† (para 9). Comparison of homelessness in the U. S and South Africa Having established a fairly clear definition of the homeless, it is paramount therefore that the three types of homelessness be pointed out. First are the chronically homeless whose case is more severe than the rest and they face other problems like drug abuse or mental illness. The other groups are known as the cyclically homeless who have forfeited their homes due to some situation arising from for example a prison term or released unemployed detainees. The last category are referred to as the temporarily homeless, who lose their dwellings for a very short period of time due to circumstances such as floods, drought and clashes displacement (Casavant , 1999) . The United States of America does face the homelessness issue like any other nation. Statistics on the number of homeless people in the United States of America is never fixed and is ever fluctuating because of the cyclical, nomadic and temporary nature. From recent studies done, the numbers do range between 650,000 to 2. million people depending on factors that have been analyzed above (McCarty, 2005). The 2004 U. S conference of Mayors study gives the following information regarding the numbers and ethnicities involved. According to the survey that was carried out in all the cities, it was established that the number of homeless people in the United States gradually increased at a rate of 7% per annum in numbers. Of the entire population 41%, were men. 40% of the population was composed of families while only a meager 14% were women. The youth comprised of only 5% of the population. By ethnicities, the African American population took the big bulk of people with approximately 49% composition. 35% were whites, 13% Hispanics, 2% Native Americans and 1% Asian. According to the survey, also the veterans or old people accounted for 10% of the population (McCarty, 2005). South Africa on the other hand gives a different picture as compared with the United States. The biggest cause of homelessness in South Africa was the adverse effects that were brought along the apartheid era. The number of people that were living in shacks was put to be between 5 million and 7. 7 million (Nduru, 2010). South Africa is a multi racial nation with both the black community and the white community coexisting together. The black community comprising of ethnicities such as Zulu, Xhosa, Ndebele and others comprise about 80% of the population while the whites and red heads comprise around 19% of the population according to the Africa community survey of 2007. It has been established that most of the population living in shanty towns is the black community. In fact, around 80% of South Africa’s population lives below the poverty line and a very huge gap do exist between the rich and the poor (Sherwood , 2003). Conclusion We have observed that the causes and the number of people being affected by homelessness do differ in great detail between the two countries. The United States though a very big country with a huge population accounts for lesser number of people without adequate shelter. Also, the United States’ distribution of homeless people across the ethnicities is a lot fairer than South Africa’s where the biggest of proportions lies among the black community.

Sunday, September 15, 2019

The Relation Between the Customer Behavior and Shopping Centre

Title The relation between the customer behavior and shopping centre promotion Author(s) RISHI The relation between the customer behaviour and shopping centre promotion Citation Issue Date 22/3/2012 URL Rights 2002 http://hdl. handle. net/10722/28778 The author retains all proprietary rights, (such as patent rights) and the right to use in future works. The Relation between the Customer Behaviour and Shopping Centre Promotion: A Case Study of Whampoa Garden TSE Chun Wai DISSERTATION Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Housing Management The University of Hong KongDecember 2002 DECLARATION i declare that this dissertation, entitled The relationship between the customer behaviours and shopping centre promotion: A case study of Whampoa Garden, represents my own work, except where due acknowledgement is made, and that it has not been previously included in a thesis, dissertation or report submitted to this University or other institution for a degree, diploma or other qualification. un Wai Acknowledgement This paper intends to show the relationship between the customer behaviors and shopping centre promotion, to understand the problem of the shopping entre by studying the customer behaviors and examining the shopping promotion strategies. Firstly the author sincerely thanks Mr. Bonny Chiu who has worked ? n Whampoa Garden ? n the property management department, for his assistance ? n providing information about the details of Whampoa Garden and promotion strategies. Secondly, thanks must be expressed to Ms. Candy Lam and Ms. Jessica Wong; classmates of Master of Housing Management have given valuable information regarding the shopping centre under their management. Thirdly, the author must also thank Ms.June Yau and Mona So for helping with word processing and production of the final typescript and proofreading. Finally, the author wants to thank Dr. Eddie Hui, the supervisor of this dissertation, for his valuable guidan ce and support in the research of this paper. THE UNIVERSITY OF HONG KONG i. I Il W ir . J Thesis Collection Deposited by the Author Contents Acknowledgement Abstract 1. Introduction ti Am and objectives p. 1 1. 2 Methodologies 1. 3 Researchmethod I . 4 Implication of the study 1. 5 Sourceofdata 2. p. 2 p. 3 p. 3 p. 4 P. 4 Customer behavior and shopping centre p. 5 2. 1 The definition fcustomerbehaviour Dynamic customer behaviour Interaction Exchanges 2. 2 Why people go shopping 2. 3 Factors affecting shopping behaviours and motivations 2. 4 Changingofshoppinghabit 2. 5 Goal and characteristic of customer 2. 6 Conceptual models and customer characteristics 2. 1. 1 2. 1. 2 2. 1. 3 2. 6. 1 2. 6. 2 2. 6. 3 2. 6. 4 Huff1s topological model (1960) Timmermans' conceptual model (1982) Sheth's integrative theory 2. 6. 3. 1 Choicecalculus 2. 6. 3. 2 ShoppIng motives 2. 6. 3. 3 Shopping option Lindquist(1974-1975) 3. What is a â€Å"shopping centre†? 3. 1 The principle of a shopping ce ntreIdentification the positioning, role and function of a shopping 3. 1 1 centre 3. 1. 2 Location ata shopping centre 3. 1. 3 Catchmeritarea 3. 1. 4 Accessibility and interlink 3. 1. 5 TenantMix 3. 1. 6 Decoration Shopfront 3. 1. 7 Entrances 3. 1. 8 3. 1. 9 Finishes 3. 1. 10 Signagesystem 3. 1. 11 Marketing 3. 1. 12 Management 3. 1. 13 Promotion . 3. 2 Typeofshoppingcentre 3. 2. 1 3. 2. 2 The neighborhood centre The community shopping centre p. 5 p. 6 p. 6 p. 6 p. 7 p. 8 p. 10 pli p. 11 p12 p. 12 p. 12 p. 13 p. 13 p. 14 p. 14 p. 17 p. 18 p. 18 p. 19 p. 19 p. 19 p. 20 p. 20 p. 21 p. 21 p. 22 p. 22 p. 23 p. 3 p. 23 p. 24 p. 25 p. 26 32. 3 The regonaI shopping centre 3. 2. 4 Specialty shopping centre 3. 3 The development of shopping centre 3. 4 Dev&opment of shopping centres in Hong Kong 3. 4. 1 Firstphase 3. 4. 2 Second phase 3. 4. 3 Third phase 4. CasestudyofwhampoaGarden 4. 1 background information and characteristic of Whampoa Garden 4. 1. 1 Development 4. 1. 2 Accessibility 4. 1. 3 Catchrnentarea and interlink 4. 1. 4 Conceptofnewtown 4. 1. 5 Theme Concept 4. 1. 6 Varietyofshop 4. 1. 7 Continuous refurbishment 4. 1. 8 Shoppingmanagement 4. 1. 9 Cleaning 4. 1. 10 Security 4. 1. 11 Air-conditioning 4. 1. 2 Maintenance & repair 4. 2 Findings Irnageattributes 4. 2. 1 4. 2. 1. 1 Recreational experience 4. 2. 1. 2 Userfriendly 4. 2. 1. 3 Stores 4. 2. 1. 4 Qualityofstores 4. 2. 1. 5 Easeofusebycarandbus 4. 2. 2 Shoppers characteristics 4. 2. 2. 1 Gender 4. 2. 2. 2 Shopping accompanied 4. 2. 2. 3 Travel model 4. 2. 2. 4 Occupation 4. 2. 2. 5 Monthly income 4. 2. 2. 6 Frequency of visits 4. 2. 2. 7 Presence of undesirable characters 5. Problems ofWhampoa Garden p. 32 p. 32 p. 32 p. 32 p. 34 p. 34 p. 34 P. 37 p. 38 p. 38 p. 39 p. 39 P. 40 p. 40 P. 41 p. 41 p. 41 p. 41 p. 4. 2 p. 43 p. 43 p. 43 p. 44 p. 44 p. 45 . 45 p. 45 p. 46 p. 47 Inadequate parking facilities Uncovered footpaths/insufficient interlinks Unsuccessful theme concept p. 48 p. 48 p. 48 p. 49 p. 50 Lack ofanchorteriants p. 51 Recession of retailing industry p. 52 5. 1 Lack of mass transportation network 5. 2 5. 3 5. 4 5. 5 5. 6 p. 27 p. 27 p. 28 p. 29 p. 30 p. 30 p. 30 6. Recommendations and shopping centres in the future 6. 1 Understandshopper'sneed 6. 2 HK$10 Plaza discountoutlets 6. 3 Transportation p. 54. p. 54 p. 54 p. 55 6. 4 Parking spaces arid footpath 6. 5 Marketing strategies 6. 6 Signage 61 Development of theme concept 6. 8 Promotion . 8. 1 Advertising 6. 8. 2 Personal selling 6. 83 Sales promotion 6. 8. 4 Publicity p. 56 p57 p. 57 p. 58 p. 58 p. 59 p. 59 p. 59 p. 59 7. Conclusion p. 61 Questionnaires p. 63 Summary results of questionnaire for customers p. 68 Bibliography p. 73 Abstract In Hong Kong, the accessibility and transportation network of newly constructed site is highly important. The transport links, especially by means of Mass Transit Railway and Kowloon-Canton Railway, are vital to the retailers, as these would increase footfall, which can bring thetn more p otential customers. However, it is all for the shoppers?Where will they go and why will they shop? Customers' shopping habits and preference has changed over years. Most importantly, it has gone along with the development and construction of shopping centre. Now instead of shopping in the sheet, shopping in huge department stores is a new trend. This paper aims at assessing the factors in attributing to the shoppers' decision by starting with a brief description of customer's behavioural models and the development of shopping centre in Hong Kong. Determining elements include convenience, pleasant and entertainment environment, tenant mix, leisure facilities and catchment, etc.Whampoa Garden is selected as the case study Overall, the findings shows active, well planned, coordinated and periodical promotion should be operated throughout the year. Besides promotion, the infrastructure of shopping centres also plays a vital role in deciding the retail pattern and the tenant mix. Therefo re, active promotion activities and continual development of shopping centres should be used as the strategy to meet the ever-changing demand and improve the image of the centre for their specified clientele. 1. Inlroduction Shopping centres are vital to our economy.Different planning of shopping centres causes different sizes and arrangements. However, all these planning would bear two purposes in mind – to provide an optimum retailing environment for the tenants and to meet the needs of customers. In recent decades, shopping centres are becoming increasingly important for the services they provide to individual consumers and many ways in which they benefit the communities in which they are located. Developers should want to know how and why people shop in their shopping centres, but others just have a fare dodging and walking in the centre.From a commercial standpoint, it may distinguish consumer behaviour from other activities. This is the point for the shopping centre bec ause profits are generated when consumers select the shopping centre rather than another. Consumers are more interested in the facilities provided by the shopping centres, so that they could spend their time arid money in there. The improvement of living standard in Hong Kong has to lead the transformation of shopping behaviour of the residents. Formerly, markets were just places where people gather together for retail activities.Nowadays, shopping centres have become multifunctional, and it is an enclosed area not only for shopping, but also for entertainment and amusement. A successful shopping centre must have the right location, (easy to access) good management; effective marketing strategy arid the right tenant mix for the demographic profile of the population it serves. However, the attraction of the shopping centre will slip downwards or fade away with the passage of time: demographic changes, competition arising from the other new shopping centres, etc. All these pose as gre at challenge for the status of an existing shopping centre.Therefore, strategies are required for rejuvenation. The aim far promoting shopping centres is to improve their overall commercial potentials and auxiliary facilities. In addition, the shoppers' behaviors and characteristics, (preference, the choices ofthe retails shops, etc. ) as well as location of the shopping centre also have to consider. Furthermore, the competition from new shopping centres compels existing shopping centres to seek for the best ways and strategies to revive the business of a shopping centre. 1. 1 Aim and Objectives The aims of this study are to investigate and evaluate strategies for the shopping entre promotion in upgrading the value of a shopping centre. Factors such as marketing stand point, competition from other competitors, demographic of the surrounding areas, social and economic situation will be considered. In addition, this paper will study the consumer behaviour and characteristics, such as place of residence, mode oftransportation, frequency ofvisit and consumer images. The objectives ofthis study are as follows: I. I . i To conduct a literature review on the characteristics and the development 2 of shopping centre through a case study on â€Å"Whampoa Garden Shopping Centre† located at Hung Horn; . i . 2 To study the behaviour of the customers; i . 1. 3 To identify the decision problems and preferences ofthe customers; i . i . 4 To analyze the store image from the view ofthe customers; 1. 1. 5 To study why shopping centres require promotion strategies? and; i . 1 . 6 To examine the shopping centre promotion strategies; 12 Methodologies in the theoretical framework, reference has been made to relevant books, magazines, newspaper, annual reports, journals as well as data from census and government statistics. In addition, marketing, promotion and management of shopping centres will also be included.In order to obtain an understanding of the relationship between the customer behaviours and shopping centre promotion, this essay will examine two broad measures. The frequency of visit, purpose, accessibility, facilities, image and overall impression of the shopping centre would be identified. Moreover, the age group, sex, place of living, working condition, income and household size of the customers will be studied. In order to examine the taxonomies adopted by previous researchers of consumer (spatial) shopping behaviour such as Shepherd and Thomas, (1980); Spiggle and Sewell, (1987).The models such as Huffs topological model; Timmerman's conceptual model; Sheth's integrative theory and Lindquist will be reviewed. Those theories are focused on the perception of the shoppers relating to the shopping centre's image. Through the above methods, developers can select the right tenants and promotion strategies to generate income and promote the shopping centre image. On the other hand, a successful shopping centre can through the information such a s age, income group and the customers' behaviour, can decide the trade of business and formulate promotion strategies to attract customers to visit. 1. 4 Implication ofihe StudyThe study will find out the behaviours of customers, and the relationships among the tenants, developers and the customers. In addition, the shopping centre promotion will also influence the investment atmosphere and affect the income of the developers. The above study can be a reference for other aging shopping centres in carrying out revival programme. LS Source of Data This study is hard to get secondary data for the shopping condition since relevant parties are reluctant to provide their business strategies. Surveys would be carried out with the tenants and customers of the shopping centre in order to obtain the 4 first hand-data.On the other hand. , through interviews with the management staff and office staff, more information and data can also be obtained. Surveys and questionnaires will be conducted t o obtain the primary data. The questionnaire is printed in Chinese since the majority of' Hong Kong's population is Chinese. It contains questions about customer behaviour, personal particu1ar and the image of a shopping centre. 5 2. Customer Behaviour and Shopping Centre Customers spend their time in purchasing goods and services, at the appropriate places where they will visit. In addition, they also like to spend their leisure time for their aily activities such as entertainment, gathering arid shopping. Shopping centres provide them a place to meet these needs. What kind of shopping centre would be suitable for them; what kind of function and facilities should the centres have; what kind of market strategies and what kind of promotion can induce more customers to visit the centre. I [J1J1IIff According to Arnould, Price and Zinkham (2002), customer behaviours define as individuals or groups acquiring, using, and disposing of products, services, ideas, or experiences. Consumer be haviour also includes the acquisition and use of information.Therefore, communicating with consumers and receiving feedback from them is a crucial part of consumer behaviour of interest to marketers. Consumers may consist of individuals or groups including families, clubs and organizations, purchasing units within corporations, and government departments. Consumer behaviour is the study of human responses to products, services, arid the marketing of products and services. This topic is of considerable importance to marketing managers and marketing researchers because the focus on the consumers is the key contribution of marketing to business practice.Other business function (e. g. , finance, accounting and production) either neglect the consumer or overlook the consumer entirely. Organizations that lose sight of their consumers cannot compete effectively against firms that stay close to their consumers. Managers who really understand their customers develop better products and servi ces, promote their products and services more effectively, and adopt marketing plans and strategies that foster sustainable competitive advantages for their products and services. Furthermore, managers who know their consumers cari reach and satisfy them more efficiently.Such managers are important assets to any organization and are rewarded accordingly (Kardes 2002). The American Marketing Association defines consumer behaviour as â€Å"the dynamic interaction of affect and cognition, behaviour, arid environmental events by which human beings conduct the exchange aspects of their lives. † There are at least three important ideas that pointed out in this definition: (1) consumer behaviour is dynamic; (2) it involves interactions between effect and cognitions, behaviours, and environmental events; and (3) it involves exchanges. The following implications are put forward. 2. 1. 1 namicCnsumer Behaviour Consumer behaviour is dynamic and means individual consumers, consumers grou ps, and society at ‘arge are constantly changing and evolving across time. 2. 1. 2 Interaction It means that to understand consumers and develop superior marketing strategies, we must understand what they think (cognitions) and feel (effect), what they do (behaviour, and the things and places (environmental) that influence and are 7 influenced by what consumers think, feel, and do. 2. 1. 3 Exchanges These make the definition of consumer behaviour consistent with current definitions of marketing that also emphasize exchange.In fact, the role of marketing is to create exchanges with consumers by formulating and implementing marketing strategies (Peter and Olson, i 993). 2. 2 Why People GoShopping Why do people do the things they do? More specifically, why do they buy and consume the products, services, experiences, and brands they do? People always mention that when they are feeling low or want to reward themselves by shopping, and shopping can be interpreted as a pleasure or a self-gift. The role of shopping and purchasing has taken on dramatic new meaning and trend to be a recreational shopping.The modem, self-enclosed shopping centre in all its variant forms has become a site to which consumers make frequent visits to satisfy a wide variety of needs including those aesthetic enjoyment, problem solving, and personal display. These trends lead the emergence of the largest shopping centre such as Disney World, Universal Studios, and the like. Such shopping centres provide retail environments combine in shopping and entertainment. Going shopping is a major source of relaxation as well as a household chore. [:1 When people realize that a good store exposed the greatest portion of its goods to he greatest number of its shoppers for the longest period of time, which put its merchandise in the path and the field of vision in a way that invites people for consideration. We're all aware of how shopping means different things to different people at different times . We use shopping as therapy, reward, bribery, pastime, as an excuse to get out of the house, as a way to troll for potentia' loved ones, as entertainment, as a forni of education or even workshop, as a way to kill time. There are compulsive shoppers doing serious damage to their bank accounts and credit ratings, who use shopping as a cry for help (Underhil, i 999, p. 5-96). People going to shopping centres as all new modem shopping centres provide leisure spaces and varies facilities such as mini cinema, indoor family games stores and funfafr style shops. In addition, the enclosed environment, controlled climate, patrol of centre's security guards and the promotion events give customers a feeling of warmth, safety, comfort and satisfaction. In addition, people going shopping can be broadly divided into three categories, they visit the supermarket to buy household chores; occasional visits the regional shopping centre to buy fashion goods, elecirical app1iances and recently shopping centre as place for people gathering together and enjoy of fun. As Beddington stated in i 99 1 that shopping is a primary human activity in which almost every individual in civilized society Building and services for takes part, inevitably almost daily. shopping are as closely related to housing as those for education, health, administration and entertainment. Bund1in of products, product components, and services is an important consideration for manufacturers, retailers, and service providers bringing their goods and services to market. Bundling typically takes one or two forms: pure or mixed (Adams and Yellen, i 976).There are four factors that affecting customers' intention to buy product and service. (1) whether the product and service are pure and mixed; (2) the price discounts of a pure goods and service in comparison to the sum of the component of mixed; (3) the functional relationship among the components and (4) number of components. As more and more shopping centres estab lished with the development of property market, it is undeniable that the competition becomes more intense. Also as the economy recession of Hong Kong has not yet fully recovered, customers cautiously evaluate the goods and services when they use their savings, and he anchor product and service that they can obtain as they are become extra pricesensitive. On the other hand,, Shenzhen, a city in mainland China just about one hour from Hong Kong by train, offers attractive entertainment facilities and low- priced retail goods in various shopping complex. To a certain extent, it actually draws much Hong Kong customers away from Hong Kong' s more expensive stores and restaurants. In general, most retail shops inside shopping centres use lo price as its competitive tool to combat competition. It is not difficult to find that shopping malls range from metropolitan to eighborhood emphasize the concept of â€Å"Discount†, † Mega Sale† it is especially obvious in some fest ivals which usually highlight the provision of ‘crazy sa1e during festival. As a result, the provision of discount become a general practice to marketers and become a norm to shoppers. Without the benefit of discount, customers are more Likely to delay their consumption or shift to others stores with the provision of discount. Thus, it is not a long-term measure to combat competition. Ji}! iIU1iIk') tii flhlTi In the past, daily products such as provisions, wet foods are gathered in market; atching movie, shopping, entertainment, games and shopping are located in different places, performed at different times for specific people. Recently, the new modem shopping centres are characterised by new spatial form including leisure and consumption activities at the same place for different people. Centres are all modem and well-managed, together with special layout to attract tenants and customers. Many centres adopt the policy of encouraging independent and specialist outlets to pro vide more choices and lower price for the customers.The concept of tenant mix is widely used is shopping management, it provides a one-stop services for the customers, so that customers can obtain their needs in one trip. In addition, the centre is also provided security patrol system, cleaning 11 service, temperature controlled and the promotion events, customers can enjoy their life here in the enclosed environment, make them feel warmth, comfort, safety and satisfaction. Furthermore, people are looked busier; they would like to save their shopping time and use for entertainment and pursuit of personal interest and other leisure time activities.Nowadays, people are more enjoy the largest one-shop shopping centres, which providing them convenient and efficient shopping. In order to attract more customers visiting the shopping centre, shopping centre not only providing convenient and efficient shopping for customers, it also develop as a place for leisure activities and create parti cular themes to upgrade their ability to competition. Recently, there has been a trend for developer to provide mini cinemas, indoor family games stores, funfair style shops and food courts inside the shopping centre. Therefore, customers regard as part of their life or entertainment and enjoyment of their leisure time, this lead to increasing the pedestrian flow. In order to attract more pedestrian flow, developer recognized that some of the customers are only spent their leisure time in the centre without any purchasing. However, the large of pedestrian flow will induce investors and tenants to invest in the shopping centres, in which with recreational, entertainment and extra facilities. Finally, shoppers like to visit shopping centre when shopping promotion is held. As lifestyle of Hong Kong people is so excited, more and more shoppers strive for he feeling of relaxation during their weekends or holidays with families and 12 friends. They usually prefer to spend a day at shoppin g centre, which can provide one-stop services. 2. 5 Goal and Characteristic of CuMomer Women shop not out of devotional love for family members, and their shopping behaviours is an investment in their families and relationships with family members. Purchasers are rationalized not in terms of what was spent, but in terms of savings and thrift. The savings and thrift generated through shopping then constitute funds that can be given to dependents and descendents (Price, Arnould, Zirikhan, 2002). 6 Conceptual Mxle1s and Customer Characteristics In the following, the major ideas from and models derived by Huff, Timmerman, Sheth, Lindquist and Wee be briefly discussed. 2. 6. 1 Huff's Topological Model (1960) It attempts to derive simple deductive models of consumer spatial behaviour and cognition, Potter (1982) considers that one ofthe landmarks was the graph theoretical or topological model of consumers space preferences developed by Huff(1960) (McGoldrick, Peter J, and Thompson, Mark G . (1992, p. 46)).According to Huff, consumer spatial behaviour was determined by the interaction of three systems; the value, behaviour-space perception and movement imagery. These refer to (i) the geographical location of the consumer of the consumer and his/her personal traits; (ii) the perceived characteristics of the retail outlet; and (iii) the perceive and objective features 13 of the transport network and the mode of travel. 2. 6. 2 Timmermans' ConceptiialModel (1982) The model suggests that the decision problem such as the type of goods to be bought, together with the consumers value system, information levels, etc. , efines a set of decision criteria for the consumer which conditions the perception of the objective physical environment containing all potential outlets (McGoldrick, Peter J, and Thompson, Mark G. (1992, p. 47)). The decision making process makes this model involves an evaluation of each destination, base on the rating to evaluate attributes and Timmerman assu mes that consumer will chose their the destination with the highest scale value. In addition, he further points out that familiarity with the various shopping opportunities and whether they are within reasonable travel time are two important factors in this respect. . 6. 3 Sheth's integrative theory Sheth formulates a theory of shopping behaviour and a theory of shopping preference. A theory of shopping behaviour includes four types of unexpected events can intervene between preference and behaviour, such as events occur between the time and place when shopping preference and intentions are established and when actual shopping behaviour takes place (McGoldrick, Peter J and Thompson, Mark G. (1992, p. 47)). Sheth further postulated three basic constructions interact to determine a shopper' s preference or shopping predisposition. 14 2. 6. 3. Choice calculus Sheth used three systems such as sequential, dominant and tradeoff as the first construct by which consumers may match their sho pping motives with their shopping operation. In which sequential calculus eliminated shopping options that do not satisfy this motive until all shopping motives have been utilized. Tradeoff calculus involves the evaluation of each shopping option on aU shopping motives simulianeously to obtain an overall acceptability score. Finally, dominant calculus evaluates each shopping option only on the most impor. ant shopping motive. 2. 6. 3. 2 SlmppingmotivesShopping motives refer to shopper's needs and wants related to the choice that shoppers looking for. In 1983, Sheth provided a distinction between functional needs and non-functional needs; functional need is the shoppers need for the low prices or some products such as food, and non-functional need is the shoppers want to shop just for relieve boredom or some products such as clothes. In addition, Sheth mentioned that personal values, social values and epistemic values influence shopper's shopping motives. He further mentioned that sp ecial products also can influence shopper' s motives. 2. 6. 3. Shopping option According to Sheth, shopping options are determined by three market factors such as location, retail structure and positing/image. 15 2. 6. 4 Lindguist (1974-1975) Store image attributes groupings (McGoldrick, Peter J, and Thompson, Mark G. (1992, p. 59)). In this mode1 it describes nine store image attributes, which contributes to image formation or to favourable/unfavourable consumer attitudes towards outlets of various types. 2. 7 Shopping Centre Image Attributes AccordIng to Wee (1986) a basket of 27 attributes was worked out though an examination of coefficient alpha values.It was thought to adequately represent the domain of shopping centre image. By grouping the 27 attributes into different categories, 8 major factors of the customers towards store image are come out for ease analysis. Detail ofthe factor analysis is as follows:- Factor 1: Recreational Experience According to Wee, this factor accou nts for 3 1 . 2% of the variance and incorporates most of the â€Å"activity oriented†. These are, in descending order of leadings, a place to spend time, an â€Å"in place† to go, a place to go when the weather is bad, a place to take children and a place to eat or drink. Two feature related variables, ecor and spaciousness, also lead significantly and are consistent with this interpretation. Factor 2: JJr Friendliness This label was chosen to describe the group of variables loading with factor 2. Most of these attributes are features, which make the centre an easier and more 16 pleasant place to use. These attributes that are unique to this factor are the helpfulness of store staff, friendliness of the atmosphere, standard of security, toilet facilIties, seating area and air condoning. The two other attributes, place to eat or drink and a place to take children, load higher with factor i.Factor3: Stores It comprises the four attributes relating to stores at the cente r, rather than the centre itself. These rated the choice of major stores, the variety of stores, the product selection available within the stores and the general quality ofthe stores. Factor 4: Quality of Environment It combines the four attributes relating to the appearance and design of the centre, namely, cleanliness, lighting, spaciousness and decor. Factor 5: Ease ofUse by Car It represents the level of accessibility to car users, who tend to be in the majority at this centre. t is possibly surprising that layout loaded within this factor, rather than factor 2 or 4. This could suggest that the layout of at very large centre is associated more strongly with accessibility than with the internal feature of the centre. Factor6: Others Factor 6 was labeled â€Å"crowding† incorporating the level of crowds and the number of undesirable characters. Factor 7, labeled â€Å"ease of use by bus† combines the opening hours and access by bus; this provides a reminder that ope ning hours are, 17 in effect one element of accessibility. Only on attribute loads significantly ithin factor 8, the general leveL of prices. In this essay, survey will be conducted by using some attributes, which are mentioned above, for the analysis of the consumer behaviour of Whampoa. 18 3. What is a â€Å"SltoppingCentre†? The use of the world â€Å"mall† to describe a pedestrianised shopping street almost certainly originated in North America in ari effort to convey a greater sense of space, quality and elegance than is normally associated with an arcade. Malls are usually covered and wide enough to provide a central area for planting, seating, fountains and other furniture.Although shops fronting an arcade are usually smaller than those in a shopping mall, the basic difference between a mall and an arcade lies not in the types of shops found in them but in the volume of space between the frontages (Northen and Flaskoll 1977). The shopping centre is distinct from other forms of commercial retail development. It is a specialized, commercial land use and building type, which today is found throughout the world but until the late 1 970s thrived primarily in America suburbia, occurring only rarely in downtowns or rural areas. Over the years, it has been ransformed from a suburban concept to one with much broader and varies applications (Shopping Centre Development Handbook). According to Urban Land Institutes (1990), shopping centre is defined as â€Å"A group of commercial establishments, planned, developed, owned, arid managed as a unit related in location, size and type of shops to the trade area it serves; it provides on-site parking in definite relationship to the types and sizes ofthe store (James (1993, p. 3)). Recently, Urban Land Institutes has redefmed this definition so that a shopping centre must have a minimum of three commercial establishments, and, in the case of urban 9 shopping centres, their on-site parking needs may be relat ed not only to the types and sizes of the stores but also to the availability of of-site parkings and alternate means of access (Shopping Centre Development Handbook). However, it is not easy to derive a universally accepted definition of shopping centre because of several reasons. Shopping centres range in size from a very few shops to those with hundred number of shops, offering a full range of shopping provisions including large department stores, restaurants, supermarkets, entertainment facilities and parking spaces as well. 3. 1 The Principle ola ShopphigCentreThe successful of a shopping centre depends on many factors such as design and layout, its locatIon, its catehment areas, the way the business is run by the shop traders and whether there is any competition within the vicinity. ! Before constructing of the shopping centre, developer should understand the position of the centre in order to avoid competition with other centres The centre will depend on the size and the popu lation to classify as community shopping centre or regional shopping centre. Also it will depend on the location that the transport can be reached together with visiting carparks.Then, developers should identify the role and function, and choose the most 20 suitable theme and target groups of retailers and shoppers. For any type of shopping centre will play different role and provide different goods and services to the specified catchment population. A good shopping centre requires to strength its image by special features and good facilities. 3. 1. 2 Locationnfa Shopping Centre Location is one of the paramount important elements for a shopping centre, accessibility and visibility should be taken into account. The best location for a shopping centre should e located at strategic location in well-developed district such as area close to railway stations or any transport interchanges. Retailers will decide to run their business as high visibility and easy accessibility of a shopping c entre will increase the pedestrian flow; also shoppers from other districts will be attracted to this centre. 3. 1. 3 Catchment Area To defme the catchment area is one of the major factors affecting the success of a shopping centre, developer should understand the needs of customers, and tailor-made the design and different type of shopping centre will have different criteria for catchment area. . 1. 4 Accessibility and Interlink The key to a successnul shopping centre plan is to attracted more pedestrians as they are potential shoppers. The greater the concentration, the better the shops will be run their business. The City Plaza at Taikoo Shing and New Town Plaza in Shatin, pedestrians have passed through the shopping centre; 2! the provision of covered footbridge linking to all shopping centres is an example of diverting the pedestrian flow. The more time the shoppers stayed in the shopping centre, the more chance they spend.The trades of the retailers must make special arrangeme nt, so that shoppers visit all parts of the shopping centre will not feel tired and lose their interest. 3. 1. 5 Ten ant Mix Selection of well-known brand names and anchor tenants is critical to strengthen the centre and appeal to others as pulling effect may be result by such tenant. It can also attract shoppers to visit all parts of the centre and maximize the attraction ofprospective customers. However, the routing of centre should be well designed and balanced for all retailers.The success of a shopping centre may rely on proper designation of trades in its appropriate locations to create pedestrian flow to induce shoppers. In addition, a trade balance is also good for a shopping centre. Apart from catering the local needs, anchor tenants may attract more shoppers. Major tenants such as department stores, supermarkets, large Chinese and Western restaurants, chain stores and entertainment facilities such as iceskate field and cinemas. Beside the desigiated trades, some criterion for different trades should be considered. a) licensing requirements such as food premises require the provision of drainage, extra water supply and exhaust arrangement; (b) eleclricity supply for fast food shop and large consumption of electricity imdes; 22 (e) air conditioning for some trades require addition cold water and (d) floor loading will be considered for some trades that require installing heavy machines. 3. 1. 6 DecoratiGn hi order to attract tenants running their business in the shopping centre, the decorations should be glamour and attractive to induce potential and anchor raders. The layout of the shopping centre is a key factor in patronage and increasing the business promising. In addition, it is also ensured that customers could be convenient and easy to follow the route; the signages are easily to identify, so that to attract them from one end to the others, and from the first floor to the second, third and up to the fourth floor, etc. Furthermore, any dead-end t o be avoided, and harmony standard in design and layout of the shopping centre should be included the design of the shopfront entrances and finishes. . 1. 7 Sliopfront Standard glass panels are installed in the front of each shop, which enable tenants to display their products or demonstrate the services to be provided in order to attract customers. To maintain a continuity and uniformity of the shopfront, all tenants are requested to make use of the metal facade above the glass panels to place their trade name and logo. 3. 1. 8 Entrances The entrances for a shopping centre must be as attractive as possible; locations 23 must be at a concentration of pedestrian flow.In addition, a successful shopping centre should provide enough customers flow especially in peak hour and season, and each entrance should be conspicuous and brig1t enough to draw attention of the pedestrians arid passers-by. It also is as wide or grand a possible so as to produce an elegant or classic image in order to impress both tenants and shoppers. A narrow entrance gives an unpleasant outlook and is unattractive. 3. 1. 9 Finishes The finishes should make customers feel comfortable, in which colour should be consistent with the theme of the shopping centre.The external wail facade of the shopping centre should be furnished with pink and yellow tiles together with tempered glass glazing, in which light coloured materials could brighten up the appearance of the shopping centre. For internal wall facade with the corridors, mirrors should be installed on the wall. It makes customers feel more comfortable as space in the corridor looks like ‘arger. In addition, in the prominent places, the wall should be covered by stainless steel, porcelain enamel or coated metal cladding. Furthermore, floors could be applied ceramic tiles and granite tiles in the open areas.However, for those areas in the centre of the shopping centre could pave granite slab and polished homogenous tiles to upgrade the sh opping centre. Finally, the false ceiling with light trough could be covered the ceiling. 3. 1. 10 Signage System In order to direct pedestrian flow and strengthen the identity of the shopping 24 centre, a sizable name of the shopping centre with logo should be placed in the external wall; in which is easy eye-catching for the customers. In addition, an external advertising paniel for anchor tenants should be installed on the Mall facade the main street.Furthermore, name of the tenants is shown in each floor together with a guide map, directories showing each tenant at each floor on the wall near the escalators and staircases. Main directories showing tenants under different trade groups can be installed at the main access to facilities customers to identify and locate specified trade more easily. However, restriction must also be imposed on the size, colour and method of illuminating the signboards so as to obtain a better appearance as a whole. The amount of wording used and the s ize of lettering should be strictly controlled. . 1. 11 Marketing Marketing in which plays an Important role In the retailing business. the chief target is provided a pleasant environment for the customers to spend their money, while tenants to promote their sales. The duty ofthe marketing people must realize that the aggressive advertising and promotion campaigns required huge amounts to pay for such activities. In addition, the on-going market analysis to explore the ever changing of market conditions, customers' behaviours, purchasing power, attitude, social taste and trend should be studied to adapt the change.Market exposure is an important to gain the latest market intelligence, so that pro-active strategies could be formulated to strike for survival and expansion. 3. 1. 12 Management 25 A successful centre can also be attributed to an efficient and effective management; management a centre is a challenging role that requires all ski11s knowledge of a professional Management C ompany. From the shop tenants' point of view, they desire reasonable profits, while from the customers' point of view; they expect an attractive, comfortable and constant flow of traders.Due to face with ever changing environment, high expectation from the tenants and customers, and the competitiveness in the vicinity, it is essential that effective and efficient management together with innovative marketing concepts should be adapted. 3. 1. 13 Promotion The centre should be designed to strengthen promotional and publicity activities with an aim to draw the public's awareness to generate traffic and patronage, so as to create additional sales. More creative and innovative promotion activities, free coupons for shopping arid particular prize winning events will be introduced.In additIon variety show features and popular artists will be invited during holIdays. Promotion campaign will include: to work out promotional programmes schedules to be linked with the theme of the centre; to a rrange seasonal and festival decorations; to issue shopping guide, display panels and newsletter; to maintain a web site to publicize information and activities relating to the Mall; arid arrange gatherings and meetings with shop tenants, district Councils and community groups. oT;u) ifs] s] sjflfl 26 Much of the impetus for shopping centre development came from USA and by the id-1950s; three main types of shopping centre had been recognized by developers, architects, plamiers and geographers (Dawson 1983). Shopping centres were originally divided into three principal types – neighbourhood, community and regional; recently, the development of specialized markets opportunity, numerous types of shopping centres have evolved. The acceptance of this three-fold classification has become one of the established truths of modern urban geography and remained in common use despite the subsequent development ofmany centres which clearly do not fit any ofthe three ategories. The classifi cation has become less meaningnzl because there are increases in the numbers of centres arid the irmovations in tenant policy design, location and development practices (Dawson 1983). The increase in hybrid shopping centre makes the types of shopping centres difficult to distinguish; therefore the major tenant classifications and to a lesser extent the centre size and trade area determinate the type of centre. 4_ ff1rf ;i;rn; i The neighbourhood shopping centres provide for the sale of convenience goods such as food, drugs, sundries and personal services.This centre is usually based on a supermarket and covers a wide range of convenience goods including personal services such as laundry, dry cleaning and shoe repairs. It serves a localized catchment population less than 50,000. (Planning Department, 2001). It provides convenience goods and services which 27 consumers needs immediately and frequently. Shoppers as a rule find it most convenient to buy such goods and services near home or near workplace. Majority ofthis shopping centre is located in public housing estates. Most are less than 30,000-100,000 square feet (Shopping Centre DevelopmentHandbook, 1999). Typical Gross Leasable area is 50,000 square feet. Shopping centres locate in public and private housing estates are typical example such as Metiopolis Plaza locates at Sheung Shui near the Kowloon Canton Railway. The shopping arcade is on level I and 2 just underneath the three domestic blocks, with 60 shops of a total rentable area of 56,433 square feet. There are 129 private car and i i 9 bicycle parking spaces respectively. The centre is also accessible by public bus, public light bus and taxi, In addition, there are 22 lorry carpark spaces and 2 cargo lifts for loading and unloading.Between level i and 2, there are 2 escalators for customers. The centre is satisfied for local residents' need as it includes food & beverage shops, convenience shops, boutique shops, shoes and leather shops, electrical a ppliance shops and others. 3. 2. 2 The Crnmnunity Shopping Centre Community shopping centre is built around a small department store or variety stores as anchor tenant. In addition to a supermarket provides convenience goods and offers a wide range of comparison goods and personal services. It usually locates in new town centre with convenient transportation network and erves a catehment population of about 50,000 to 1,OOOOOO (Planning Department, 2001). The range of the area is 100,000-450,000 square feet (Shopping Centre Development Handbook, 1999). Typical Gross rental area is 28 150,000 square feet. This type of shopping cenfre also offers greater depth and range of merchandise and goods than neighbourhood shopping centre. It provides certain categories of goods, particularly commodities, which are less likely to be found in regional shopping centre. It attracts shoppers through the provision offull range ofshopping faciLities and goods. The maIn attraction ofthis kind f centre is usually the department store or some anchor tenants like ParkN Super Store, McDonald's Restaurant and Maxim's Chinese Restaurant. On the other hand, neighbourhood shopping centres have potential power to be a community shopping centre as their sizes and populations are strong enough to support them, just as some community shopping centre can expand into regional shopping centre. Therefore, the position of community shopping centre is the â€Å"in-between† centre, and it is hard to categorize. Tuen Mun Town Plaza and Shatin New Town Plaza, Telford Garden in Kowloon Bay are categorized as regional shopping centre.Shopping centres in Hong Kong such as Hang Fa Chuen in Chai Wan and City plaza in Taikoo Shing with several residential blocks in the vicinity, are categorized as community centres. 3. 2. 3 The Regional Shopping Cenfre Regional shopping centre usually has one or two full-line department stores, and the size can be range from 300,000 to 900,000 square feet, which can be served more than 150,000 populations. This type of shopping centre is a comparison trading centre, customers are visited on a regularly period or 29 occasional shopping trip to purchase goods such as fashion, shoes, furniture nd electrical appliances; customers usually make the prices comparison before they buy. It usually serves Hong Kong people as a whole. It includes local residents, office people as well as tourists. For example, Landmark at Central, it provides consumer durable goods, personal services as well as entertainment. The catchrnent area of this centre involving into different district areas and serves for large group of population. Shopping centres such as Pacific Place, Landmark, Time Square at Causeway Bay arid Ocean Terminal at Tsim Sha Tsui and Festival Walk that serve for people in different districts. . 2. 4 Specialty Shopping Centre J_n Hong Kong, this kind of shopping centre represents relatively small categories of the market, typical example such as gol den Shopping Centre in Shamshuipo for various types ofcomputer hardware and software. Golden Shopping Arcade is suited at Yen Chow Street and Kwei Lin Street in Shamsbuipo district. It is just a few steps away from the Shamshuipo Mass Transit Railway station, and public buses, public light buses and taxi can also be accessed. There are about 70 shops occupying two levels of the arcade. Beside he retailing shops, there are shops selling computer hardware and software of various brands and models. No matter new and experienced computer users, the arcade attracts them as the centre provides various software and hardware at lower prices. 30 3. 3 The Development f Shopping Centre According to Schiller, i 985, the term of shopping centre is ambiguous in Britain. It can mean either a comprehensive shopping development, as it does it most other countries, or a clustering of traditional shops in a town centre. Town centre can include planned and unplanned retail areas; however shopping centr e is often oosely used to mean a group of shops, which has been designed, planned, developed, owned, marketed and managed as a unit. Shopping centre is a planned assemblage of shop units which may or may not exist as part of sopping district, in which a shopping district can consist oftwo or more shopping centres. In Britain, many town centres has been developed as a shopping centre. According to McGildrick & Thompson, 1991), the massive suburban expansion in the last thirty to forty years has produced the features of urban landscape usually associated with the term â€Å"Shopping Centre†, but the British residential sprawl