Wednesday, November 27, 2019
Characterization of Hamlet, Gertrude and Ophelia Essay Paper Hamlet is a character of extraordinary complexness and deepness. No simple expression can function to work out his enigma. A different Hamlet might hold killed his uncle Claudius on the strength of the GhostÃ¢â¬â¢s accusal. ascended the throne. married Ophelia and lived merrily of all time after. But such a typical hero was non likely to be of involvement to Shakespeare. We can besides state that in Hamlet Shakespeare presents a liquidator and revenger who is both ruthless and reluctant and his decease is the ultimate consequence of his being charged by the Ghost to transport out instructions which were violative to his moral rules. We will write a custom essay sample on Characterization of Hamlet, Gertrude and Ophelia Essay specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Characterization of Hamlet, Gertrude and Ophelia Essay specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Characterization of Hamlet, Gertrude and Ophelia Essay specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Like other tragic heroes of Shakespeare he is besides endowed with exceeding qualities like royal birth. graceful and charming personality among his ain countrymen. He has a high rational quality as Ophelia observes: O what a baronial head is here overthrown! / The courtierÃ¢â¬â¢s. soldierÃ¢â¬â¢s. scholarÃ¢â¬â¢s oculus. lingua. blade. / ThÃ¢â¬â¢ anticipation and rose of the just province. / The glass of manner. and the mold of signifier. / ThÃ¢â¬â¢ observed of all perceivers. [ Act III. Scene I ] In malice of possessing all these high qualities which rank him above the other characters the defect in his character leads to his ruin and makes him a tragic hero. The tragic defect in the character of Hamlet is that he thinks excessively much and experience excessively much. He is frequently disturbed by his ain nature of Ã¢â¬Ëself analysesÃ¢â¬â¢ . What is required of Hamlet is prompt action. whereas he broods over the moral idealism which leads to his hold in action. When he gets an chance to kill Claudius. he puts aside the idea because he can non strike an enemy while he is at supplication. Several causes account for his inactivity. By nature he is prone to believe instead than to move. He is a adult male of ethical motives and his moral idealism receives a daze when his female parent remarries Claudius after his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s decease. Chance excessively plays an of import portion in determining his character. Chance places him in such a place in which he is incapable of making anything. He becomes inconsistent and is no longer a individual who reaches a decision merely by concluding. Like other tragic heroes Hamlet excessively has to confront struggle. both internal and external. The internal struggle is between his moral consciences and the act of retaliation which he is called upon to execute. Love of his male parent. the dishonour of his female parent and the villainousness of his uncle prompt him to take retaliation while his aristocracy. his moral idealism. his rules and his faith rebellion against such a barbarous act. The consequence is that. rupture within himself. he suffers mental anguish. Hamlets wants to take retaliation against Claudius. the liquidator of his male parent. the supplanter of his rights to the throne and the seducer of his female parent. In Hamlet Shakespeare presents a revenger who is both ruthless and loath. As a revenger he must move. on behalf of indignant virtuousness. to reconstruct a profaned order. put right what is Ã¢â¬Ëout of jointÃ¢â¬â¢ . But the act he is impelled to make. affect him in immorality of the sort which he would penalize. As the ruthless revenger he exemplifies in his ain individual the immorality which is inseparable from the good in human nature ; as the loath revenger he can typify the goodÃ¢â¬â¢s abomination of it. As compared to Fortinbras and Laertes. Hamlet is slow in taking retaliation because of his wont of believing long and deep. Bradley clearly describes this status and says he suffered from melancholia. a pathological province which may good develop into madness. ( p. 121 ) There is an another facet of HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s word picture i. e. his lunacy. T. S Eliot argues that Ã¢â¬Ëthe lunacy of Hamlet ballad in ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s manus ; in the earlier play a simple artifice. and to the terminal. we may assume. understood as a regulation by the audience. For Shakespeare it is less than lunacy and more than feigned. Ã¢â¬â¢ ( p. 102 ) By feigning to be huffy. Hamlet kept unfastened the safety valve and could talk order to alleviate the force per unit area on his head. This is what T. S Eliot means when he uses the words Ã¢â¬Å"more than feigned. Ã¢â¬ Samuel Johnson ( 1765 ) besides considers his lunacy as fabricated even in his ( HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s ) intervention of Ophelia. Johnson says in this respect. Ã¢â¬ËHe plays the lunatic most. when he treats Ophelia with so much discourtesy. which seems to be useless and motiveless inhuman treatment. Ã¢â¬â¢ ( Johnson. 1765 ) ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s word picture of Gertrude and Ophelia in Hamlet is self-contradictory as it challenges every bit good as complements the modern-day societal traditions and norms. Gertrude is the best illustration of this paradox that is manifested through her extraordinary domination over all the major characters of Hamlet. her influence in the tribunal affairs and province personal businesss and her blind obeisance to Claudius. Ophelia is besides active in her domestic sphere but her involvement are restricted to amative and marital maters merely and they are farther directed by his male parent Polonius and brother Laertes. She is an prototype of traditional feminist looks of the age that require celibacy. conformity and credence of male dominancy from adult females. Ophelia remains inactive in the domestic and emotional sphere. Ophelia has no individuality of her ain and all her domestic and amative affairs are directed by her male parent. Polonius enterprises to manner the life and attitude of Ophelia harmonizing to his ain wants. He considers his desires as her desires and attempts to orient her attack by assorted agencies. Ophelia is farther guarded by his brother against any possible menace to her celibacy and virginity. At OpheliaÃ¢â¬â¢s entry into Hamlet. her brother. Laertes bodyguards Ophelia reding her on her relationship with Hamlet. So right from the really start. Ophelia is under the sway of Laertes and Polonius. So her character is in complete conformance with the traditional values of that clip. Polonius ever responds from a place of authorization over Ophelia. stressing his power as the decision-maker for her. Both her male parent and brother have a ego assigned undertaking of directing Ophelia how to move decently in every sphere of her life. Although Shakespeare has characterized Ophelia as inferior to male characters. but word picture of Gertrude has double feature. Sometime it challenges the traditions of the conformist society and sometime it itself become conforms to the values of the society by moving passively.
Sunday, November 24, 2019
Title Essays - Fiction, Literature, Allegory, Lord Of The Flies Title We as humans never want to see ourselves as the problem, we are constantly putting the blame on someone else. In the book The Lord Of the Flies, the boys are looking for a monster or a beast. They, while searching for the beast, become the monster themselves. Golding shows human inability to except responsibility of their evil. As the boys blame their inhuman actions on the beast rather than to accept the evil within. In the beginning of the book Simon and Piggy suggest that maybe they, the boys, are the beasts," Maybe there is a beast  maybe it's only us." (Golding) As the suggestions are made, they are laughed off by the other boys. This is the first time the boys were unable to except even the thought of the evil within. Their inability to except what they are now becoming leads to their failure to believe what they later become. Simon talking to the Lord of the Flies is a turning point for him, because he realizes that the beast is only them and it wasn't something they could hunt down and kill," Fancy thinking the Beast was something you could hunt and kill! You knew, didn't you? I'm part of you?" (Golding) He later becomes not only afraid of himself, but of the other boys. Throughout the book the boys demonstrate inhuman actions, each time blaming it on the beast. Actions soon becoming increasingly worse soon lead up to the death of Simon. The boys fear of themselves ultimately lead to loss of their innocence and the beginning of a monster.
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Progressivism - Essay Example The era ensured direct primaries and voting of American seniors. This achievement was vital because it gave the citizens power of their regime. The progressives had a goal of improving education in high school through construction of vital facilities such as playgrounds. This measure was to suppress certain districts and substitute the urban machines (Henretta & David 253). The urban machines were corrupt and inefficient systems of municipality. The era saw the regulation of labor laws hence all people especially women were able to receive minimum wages (Henretta & David 583). Child labor was in restriction and insurance cover for factory workers enhanced. The work of progressives facilitated to the redress of various issues, for example, drugs and operation of the railroad industry (Henretta & David 461). There was firm antitrust laws plus decreased tariffs. The congress ensured control of banking systems hence improving conditions of work. Progressivism featured constitutional changes allowing income tax. The changes in constitution altered the election process leading to gender consideration. The reforms outlawed the sale plus manufacture of alcohol in various regions. The pioneers of progressivism called for restriction of immigrants through control of borders, and changing the nationality of the
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Letter to C.S.Lewis - A Grief Observed - Essay Example I would like to raise significant insights after reading your apologetic writing Ã¢â¬Å"A Grief ObservedÃ¢â¬ some weeks ago (Lewis 1). This is because the descriptions of incidents in the text inspired strong reactions in me. Furthermore, the writing stimulated my thinking consequently motivating me to have a conversation with you. This is because I admit that grieving after the demise of a friend or a loved one is a horrible experience for persons universally. I also admit that love causes peoples behavior to transform for better and occasionally to their detriment than any aspect of peoples life (Parrish & Parrish 61). However, my response to the text concerns offering information about peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s reaction to bereavement and their faith during such situations in my culture. Furthermore, I would like to offer information basing on how love currently adapts while faced with various challenges in the historical moments. Descriptions offered in the text Ã¢â¬Å"A Grief ObservedÃ ¢â¬ regarding love presents some similarities and inconsistencies in my culture (Lewis 3). The bereavement as observed by the text is a challenge to love and loved ones. The demise of a loved one currently makes people in my culture feel worse off because life becomes uninteresting after such a scenario. In the present time, people can remarry after losing partners (Eldredge 117). As the author of this text, you did not consider remarrying to minimize your suffering caused by the demise of your partner. Furthermore, remaining unmarried is socially dangerous as depicted by how people treated you thereafter. It is commendable that even though you already assumed a confirmed bachelor title then at fifty six years you opted to marry a divorcee. Furthermore, you married someone you knew suffered from bone cancer a clearly risky decision. These happened because of the love that you had for Helen. Although, you attempted to assume the absence of Helen arguing that Ã¢â¬Å"love is not the whole of a manÃ¢â¬â¢s lifeÃ¢â¬ realities hit and your memories sprung back to her (Cassidy & Shaver 49). This shows that true love is extremely strong that it becomes exceedingly hard to forget a love one even after the demise. Presently, love adapts to such horrific incidents through remarriage and overwhelming love that people around victims offer. While applauding your courage to venture into marriage at that later date, I have to question your motive for doing so (Lewis 6). This is because I have never seen anyone marry at that age in my culture. Persons tend to find partners in much earlier ages. The love that God offers man remains unquestionable though you initially discredited this during your bereavement. The love for the welfare of other people, which God indeed has for persons he calls his children existed in you (Howell 54). The demise of Helen does not connote the absence of GodÃ¢â¬â¢s love upon you. This is because God does not only show the love that he has ov er people by making them live continuously. Persons in my culture presently comprehend that the demise of their close partners is only a way that God fulfils his promises. The descriptions offered in the text regarding the availability of God necessarily emerge from the bereavement and the feeling that God neglects you. The text argues that seeking God in happiness with appreciation and commendation then he gladly
Sunday, November 17, 2019
Strategic management - Essay Example A major makeover happened for the company in 1990 when it joined hands with BMW of Germany for manufacturing of aero engines. Ã¢â¬Å"Today it is the world's second largest civil aero engine company, the world's second largest defence aero engine company, a global leader in marine propulsion and a leading supplier of energy solutions. All of these businesses have gas turbine technology at their heart.Ã¢â¬ (Rolls Royce, 2011) Aero engine manufacturing is one of the largest engineering industrial sectors in the world. Some of the leading aero engine manufacturers in the world are Rolls-Royce Engines, BMW, Bristol Engine Company, CFM International, Pratt & Whitney, Daimler Benz, GE Aviation, Hispano-Suiza, Napier and Son, Volvo Aero, etc. Among these, Rolls Royce is one of the leading market players. Rolls-Royce Engines holds nearly one third of the business aircraft engine market. Some of the main customers of Rolls-Royce include Airbus, Bombardier, Embraer and Raytheon. Quality, Rel iability and Tradition has been the main driving force behind the success of Rolls Royce Aero Engines. The key success factors of aero engine manufacturing industry are very critical. ... Research and Development is the next success factor. R&D is the factor that drives every other success factors. Better technology is developed only through innovation. Technological innovation is possible only through better investment of time and resources into R & D. Innovative product offerings are the next success factor of the industry. Merely supplying engines is not the game plan currently. Some of the innovative plans of the industry are Corporate Care, power-by-the-hour, pay-as-you-fly program, etc. (George, 2011) Similarly, better after sales service and customer relationship management are another key success factors. The aviation industry segment can be classified mainly into two categories that are wide body engine market and narrow body engine market. As of now Rolls-Royce has considerable market share in the wide body engine market with the second position in the segment. But Rolls-Royce still needs to develop its presence in the narrow body market. Currently, Rolls-Ro yce participates in the narrow body segment in a joint venture with Pratt & Whitney and others. Ã¢â¬Å"Rolls-Royce is well positioned in the wide body market, but about to lose 25% of the narrow body market in which it has a 40% joint venture share by 2015.Ã¢â¬ (GLG Expert Contributor, 2010) Analysis of External Factors Like any other industry, external factors have great influence on the prospects of aero engine manufacturing industry. Some of the key external factors influencing the aero engine manufacturing industry are as follows. 1. Raw material cost 2. Competition 3. Bargaining power of customers 4. Environmental impact 5. Regulatory Pressures 6. Currency risk 7. Other external events Raw material
Friday, November 15, 2019
National Waste Law Ã¢â¬Å"It is unfortunate that the difficulties of interpreting the pronouncements from the EC are compounded by the failure of the national authorities to agree a common approach to the definition of waste.Ã¢â¬ Critically assess whether case law shows a Ã¢â¬Å"common approachÃ¢â¬ to the definition of waste. Introduction In OSS Group Ltd v Environment Agency, an appeal case concerning the question of when lubricating oil ceased to be waste, it was apparent that the Environment Agency (the Agency) and the Department for the Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) held different views about the definition of waste and, specifically, when a waste ceased to be a waste. The Agencys view was that if the intended use of the material was combustion, the material remained a waste until the material had been burned, irrespective of whether the waste material was similar to a raw material. DEFRAs view was that while the combustion of waste lubricating oil was a recovery operation and therefore the waste oil would remain waste until combustion was completed, material burned as fuel that was recovered from waste lubricating oil was not being discarded, and therefore was not a waste, where the material had the same characteristics as a virgin material. The judge in the original case, Burton J, concluded that t he Agencys view was correct, and that even where a waste ceased to be waste after processing, it would revert to being a waste when burned. While the differences between the Agency and DEFRAs views may not have seemed particularly significant, in practice they resulted in a situation where a recovered substance could be both a non-waste and a waste depending upon the proposed end-use of the product. This was the situation faced by Solvent Resource Management (SRM), who produced, for onward sale, product grade distillates (PGD) from recovered solvents. As a saleable product, PGD was a non-waste; however, when the material was used as a fuel in SRMs plant, it reverted to being a waste even though there was no intention by, or requirement for, SRM to discard the material. Carnwath LJ provided some clarity in the appeal by OSS, where he concluded that the Agencys view was too narrow, and OSSs products could be burnt other than as fuel. Carnwath LJ considered that a Ã¢â¬Å"practical common senseÃ¢â¬ approach was required that was consistent with the aims of the WFD. He went on to conclude that: Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦in the light of this judgment, it may be possible for [the Department for the Environment, Food and Rural Affairs] and the [Environment Agency] to join forces in providing practical guidance for those affected. It is unfortunate that the difficulties of interpreting the pronouncements from Luxembourg are compounded by the failure of the national authorities to agree a common approach.Ã¢â¬ Evidently, Carnwath LJ considered that a common approach to the definition of waste was not being taken. Through a consideration of the European and national case law relating to the definition of waste, it is intended that this paper will demonstrate that the European Court of Justice (ECJ) takes a consistent approach to the definition of waste, that being that any material or substance can be waste within the meaning of the Waste Framework Directive (WFD), while Member States and national authorities (including national Courts) do not take a consistent approach to the definition of waste. Article 1(a) of the WFD defines Ã¢â¬Ëwaste as: Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦any substance or object in the categories set out in Annex I which the holder discards or intends or is required to discardÃ¢â¬ . The categories set out in Annex I cover items that would typically be considered waste and would therefore require discarding, such as out of date or off-specification products, materials spilled or contaminated, unusable parts, and various production residues. However, the WFD ensures that the definition is wide by specifying an additional category, which refers to: Ã¢â¬Å"any materials, substances or products which are not contained in the above categoriesÃ¢â¬ . Additional information on the materials and substances that are waste is provided in the European Waste List. However, the introductory notes to the list state that Ã¢â¬Å"the inclusion of a material in the list does not mean that the material is a waste in all circumstances. Materials are considered to be a waste only where the definition of waste in Article 1(a)Ã¢â¬ ¦is met.Ã¢â¬ Determining whether a substance or object is indeed a waste will therefore depend wholly on the waste holders intention or requirement to Ã¢â¬Ëdiscard the material. Varying approaches have been taken to determining whether something has been discarded, or whether the holder intends or is required to discard it. The Advocate General in his opinion in Tombesi considered that if a material was consigned to a recovery operation, it was an indication that it had been discarded and it was therefore a waste. He stated that: Ã¢â¬Å"Under the Directive the sole question is whether the substance in issue is subject to a disposal or recovery operation within the meaning of Annex IIA or BÃ¢â¬ The need to identify whether something had been discarded had effectively been bypassed by considering that all materials consigned to a recovery or disposal operation were waste. If it was identified that a material had been subject to an Annex IIA or B operation, it could be concluded that the material was discarded and was therefore waste. This approach was not supported in the judgment from the ECJ, however. The Advocate Generals approach in Tombesi was followed in other subsequent cases, for example Inter-Environnment Wallonie v Regione Wallone, where it was concluded that substances that were subject to a recovery process would normally be waste, and in Mayer Parry Recycling Ltd v Environment Agency, where the UK court held, on the basis of Tombesi, that scrap metal that was to be reused without being subject to a recovery process was not a waste. The so-called Ã¢â¬ËTombesi-bypass presented problems, however, since a number of the specified recovery processes could also be normal industrial processes using ordinary raw materials that would not be classified as wastes (e.g. coal (fuel) combusted in a power station to generate electricity would not be classified as a recovery process). In ARCO Chemie Netherland Ltd vMinister von Volkshuivesting, the Advocate Generals opinion in Tombesi was not followed. It was considered that a substance consigned to a recovery operation listed in Annex IIB of the WFD was not necessarily to be considered as a waste, and it was first considered necessary to establish whether the material in question constituted waste (i.e. whether or not it had been discarded). The approach taken in ARCO and subsequent cases was different to that of the previous cases, and the need to establish a holders intention or requirement to discard a material became the determining factor when identifying whether a mate rial or substance was waste. The underlying concept of the ECJs approach to the definition of waste was stated in ARCO as follows: Ã¢â¬Å"Whether [a material or substance] is waste must be determined in the light of all the circumstances, by comparison with the definition set out in article 1(a) of the Directive, that is to say the discarding of the substance in question or the intention or requirement to discard it, regard being had to the aim of the Directive and the need to ensure that its effectiveness is not undermined.Ã¢â¬ Essentially, the definition of waste therefore turned on the term Ã¢â¬Ëdiscard. In his judgment in OSS, Carnwath LJ defined Ã¢â¬Ëdiscard, as he had done previously in Mayer Parry Recycling Ltd v Environment Agency, as follows: Ã¢â¬Å"The term Ã¢â¬Ëdiscard is used in a broad sense equivalent to Ã¢â¬Ëget rid of; but it is coloured by the examples of waste given in Annex I and the waste catalogue, which indicate that it is concerned generally with materials which have ceased to be required for their original purpose, normally because they are unsuitable, unwanted or surplus to requirements Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ He noted, however, that it was clear that this was Ã¢â¬Å"only part of the storyÃ¢â¬ , and referred to a number of cases subsequent to ARCO where the ECJ had attempted to provide objective criteria that could be used as evidence that a holder of a substance or material intended to discard that material and, therefore, the material should be considered as waste. Some of these criteria were summarised by Lord Reed in the conclusion to his judgment in Scottish Power Generation Ltd v Scottish Environmental Protection Agency: Ã¢â¬Å"[F]or example, whether the material is produced intentionally; whether further processing is required before the material can be used; and whether the material is certain to be used[;]Ã¢â¬ ¦whether the material is commonly regarded as waste; and whether, if it is used as fuel, its use as fuel is a common method of recovering waste. Since the status of a material has to be assessed on the basis of a comprehensive assessment of the circumstances of the particular case, it follows that none of the factors mentioned is conclusive in itself. The factÃ¢â¬ ¦that a material is produced intentionally, requires no further processing before it can be used, and is certain to be used, cannot be taken in isolation as determinative of its status.Ã¢â¬ He went on to consider the criteria that could be used to assess when a substance ceased to be waste: Ã¢â¬Å"The danger which is typical of waste is a danger of harm to human health or the environment caused by the manner of its disposal. The [WFD] seeks to address that danger by making waste subject to supervision designed to ensure that it is recovered or disposed of in a manner which is controlled so as to protect human health and the environment. Once a material has been classified as waste, it therefore remains subject to that supervision at least until that objective has been achieved. It is only then that the material may cease to be wasteÃ¢â¬ ¦When it is claimed that what was waste has ceased to be wasteÃ¢â¬ ¦it is accordingly necessary to assess whether that claim is well founded. That assessment requires consideration not only of whether the material in question can and will be used without further processing in the same way as a non-waste material, but also of whether the material can be used under the same conditions of environmental protection as the non-waste material with which it is otherwise comparable, without any greater danger of harm to human health or the environment. Other factorsÃ¢â¬ ¦may also be relevant in considering whether waste has been subjected to a recovery operation or merely to pre-treatmentÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ The general approach taken by the ECJ to the definition of waste, that is that any material or substance may be waste where it has been or is required or intended to be discarded, is therefore considered to be consistent throughout the case law reviewed. However, as demonstrated in the remainder of this paper, the insistence of the ECJ that whether or not a material is waste, or ceases to be waste, must be determined on the basis of whether or not its holder intended or was required to discard it, even where this has no practical relevance, results in varying approaches being taken by Member States and national authorities to the definition of waste. In 2007, the Commission of the European Communities published a document intended to be used by Member States in interpreting the judgments from the ECJ. In Annex 1 to the document, a number of examples of wastes and non-wastes are given; however, the examples are introduced as follows: Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦There are many other examples that could have been used, and even the examples here may vary across the EU in some circumstances, notably if there is no certainty of use for a given by-product, or on the contrary, if use is certain for a material in a region or Member State, where this is not the case across the whole EU.Ã¢â¬ Clearly, the position of the Commission in considering that a material might be waste in one Member State but not in another would appear to be wholly inconsistent with the aims of the WFD, and therefore inconsistent with the approach taken by the ECJ to the definition of waste. The seventh recital of the WDF is particularly noted in this regard: Ã¢â¬Å"Moreover, discrepancies between Member States legislation with regard to waste disposal and recovery may affect the quality of the environment and the smooth operation of the internal marketÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ While the ECJ may be consistent in its approach, the Commission of the European Communities does not appear to be adopting an approach consistent with the aims of the WFD. Varying approaches to the definition of waste can also be seen to be taken by the Member States. In the case law this is apparent in relation to Member States failure to fully implement aspects of the WFD, and in submissions made by Member States on these and other European and national cases. In relation to Member States implementation of the WFD, the following examples highlight well the varying approaches adopted. Germany historically excluded certain categories of recyclable waste from the scope of its domestic waste legislation, while the United Kingdom excluded agricultural waste from its definition of waste. Similarly, and more recently, Italy was found to have failed to fulfill its obligations under the WFD by excluding from its national legislation materials such as excavated earth and rock, food scraps and leftovers, and substances intended for recovery. Italian legislation historically also excluded substances or objects that were considered to be capable of economic reuse. It distinguished between Ã¢â¬Ëwaste and Ã¢â¬Ëresidues, and provided for simplified procedures for the collection, transport, treatment and reuse of residues. Moreover, certain materials with specific commodity characteristics were excluded from the relevant legislation altogether. In Tombesi, ARCO, Castle Cement, Palin Granit Oy, Mayer Parry, Saetti, and Thames Water v Bromley Magistrates Courtsubmissions to the Court were made by various Member States governments. Their submissions highlight the differing approaches adopted by the Member States, and as an example, a brief discussion of the submissions made in Tombesi is provided. The Danish government considered that the concept of waste included all residual products, defining residual products as those that are not the primary goal sought by the production process, do not have a constant economic value, and their use depends on the markets available for them. The French government agreed that waste included residues, and considered that waste continued to be waste until it was recovered. The Italian government argued that the definition of waste in the WFD placed too much importance on the subjective element of the intentions of the waste holder, and that it was legitimate to employ the possibility of use a s a basic criterion and exclude from the notion of wastes substances that have recognized properties and are normally traded on markets. The Netherlands and UK governments took an intermediate view, with the Netherlands highlighting that secondary raw materials would not be waste, while the UK government argued that something was a waste when it left the normal commercial cycle or chain of utility and was consigned to a recovery operation. The Member States approach to the definition of waste clearly varies significantly. As a final example of the approach taken to the definition of waste, it is useful to return to the OSS case and contrast this with other similar cases that have been concerned with a material derived from waste that was subsequently used as fuel. Such cases include ARCO, Castle Cement v Environment Agency, Scottish Power Generation Ltd v Scottish Environmental Protection Agency, Saetti v Frediani,and Lcopower BV v Secretary of State. On the facts of each case, materials in the first three cases were considered likely to be wastes despite the Ã¢â¬Ërecovery processes that the materials had been subjected to, while the materials in the remaining two were not considered to be wastes. The OSS case followed the general approach taken in ARCO, where it was statedthat Ã¢â¬Å"[t]he operations to which a substance is subsequently submitted are not of crucial importance to its classification as wasteÃ¢â¬ . However, in Castle Cement, which concerned a material recovered from waste solvents and liquids derived from waste sources by Solvent Resource Management, the fact that the material was burned as fuel was an important consideration in determining that the material remained waste. This was in spite of the fact that it had been produced to a specification specifically for use as fuel. This can be contrasted against Saetti, where petroleum coke, which was produced to a specification although was considered to be waste by its producer, was held not to be waste. In Scottish Power, the waste-derived fuel was again made to a specification; however, here it was considered that since the material could not be used as fuel in the same conditions of environmental protection as the raw material it was replacing, it must be considered waste. In relation to the materials characteristics, however, in Castle Cement, Stanley Burnton J considered that: Ã¢â¬Å"Whether material is Ã¢â¬Ëwaste cannot depend on whether any particular holder of it stores and uses it in an environmentally and otherwise safe manner. Its categorisation should depend on its qualities, not on the qualities of its storage or use.Ã¢â¬ This view can itself be contrasted with the ECJs approach to the definition of waste, which depends not on the quality of the material but on the intention or requirement of the holder to discard that material. In conclusion, while it appears from the case law that the ECJ has, on balance, taken a consistent approach to the definition of waste, its insistence on relying on the holders intention or requirement to discard the material has resulted in Member States and national authorities (including the national Courts) taking, unsurprisingly, an inconsistent approach to the definition of waste. The self-proclaimed Ã¢â¬Ëclarification document published by the Commission of the European Communities collates and prioritises the judgments from the ECJ, but it is questionable whether the approach taken is consistent with the overall aim of the WFD. Stanley Burnton J confessed to finding parts of the ECJs judgments Ã¢â¬ËDelphic and, while apparently consistent throughout the relevant cases, I would tend to agree. The third recital of the WFD states the following: Ã¢â¬Å"Common terminology and a definition of waste are needed in order to improve the efficiency of waste management in the Community.Ã¢â¬ Perhaps it should read Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦and a workable, comprehendible definition of wasteÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ? References ARCO Chemie Netherland Ltd vMinister von Volkshuivesting and EOPN  Env LR 40 (Case C-418/97) 15 June 2000 Bell, S. and McGillivray, D., Environmental Law (Oxford: OUP, Sixth Edition, 2006 Castle Cement v Environment Agency  EWHC Admin 224 Commission Decision 2000/532 of 3 May 2000 (  O.J. L226/3 ) replacing Decision 94/3 (  O.J. L5/15 ) establishing a list of wastes pursuant to Article 1(a) of Council Directive 75/442 (  O.J. L194/39 ) on waste and Council Decision 94/904 (  O.J. L356/14 ) establishing a list of hazardous waste pursuant to Article 1(4) of Council Directive 91/689 (  O.J. L377/20 ) on hazardous waste, as amended by Council Decision 2001/573 (  O.J. L203/18 ) of 23 July 232001 amending Decision 2000/532 as regards the list of wastes Commission of the European Communities v Italy (Cases C-194/05, C-195/05, and C-263/05) 18 December 2007 reported in EU Focus 2008, 225, 15-17 Commission of the European Communities v United Kingdom  All ER (D) 279 (Case C-62/03) 16 December 2004 Commission of the European Communities, 2007. Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament on the Interpretative Communication on waste and by-products. Brussels, 21 February 2007, COM(2007) 59 final Commission of the Eurpoean Communities v Germany  1 CMLR 383 (Case C-422/92) 10 May 1995 Council Directive 2006/12/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 5 April 2006 on waste Criminal Proceedings against Niselli (Case C-457/02) Criminal Proceedings against E. Zanetti and Others  I ECR 1509 (Case C-359/88) 28 March 1990 Euro Tombesi and Others  3 CMLR 673 (Joined Cases C-304/94, C-330/94, C-342/94, C-224/95) 25 June 1997 Icopower BV v Secretary of State (Unreported May 14, 2003) cited in OSS Group Ltd v Environment Agency  Env LR 8 Inter-Environnement Wallonie v Regione Wallonne  All ER 155 (Case C-129/96) 18 December 1997 Mayer Parry Recycling Ltd v Environment Agency  1 CMLR 963 OSS Group Ltd v Environment Agency  Env LR 19 OSS Group Ltd v Environment Agency  Env LR 8 Palin Granit Oy v Lounais-Suomen Ymparistokeskus  All ER (EC) 366 (Case C-9/00) 18 April 2002 Saetti v Frediani  Env LR 37 (Case C-235/02) 15 January 2004 Scottish Power Generation Ltd v Scottish Environment Protection Agency (No.1)  SLT 98 OH Thames Water Utilities v Bromely Magistrates Court  Env LR 3 (Case C-252/05) 10 May 2007
Tuesday, November 12, 2019
One of the most famous and publicly known cases of all time is the OJ Simpson murder case. This case was publicly announced for many years. It was very popular because not only was O. J. Simpson a famous former American football star but also an actor that had been accused of a very serious crime that changed his life forever. Although the case was publicly announced, many people donÃ¢â¬â¢t know many of the specifics about his early childhood, his athletic career and most importantly about the famous murder trial. Orenthal James Simpson was born on July 9, 1947 in San Francisco, California. He lived in a very low-income neighborhood outside of San Francisco. His parents were Eunice and James Lee Simpson. At two years old, Simpson contracted rickets, leaving his legs skinny, pigeon-toed. He had to wear a pair of shoes connected by an iron bar for a few hours almost every day until he was five. Being that his parents were very poor, they were unable to afford surgery for Simpson. This caused many of his childhood friends to make fun of him. In 1952, his mother and father separated. Along with a brother and two sisters, he was raised by his mother in Potrero Hill district of San Francisco. In order to maintain four children, SimpsonÃ¢â¬â¢s mother worked at a psychiatric wardÃ¢â¬â¢s office. His mother was always there for him when he needed her. (Karpinski, 2012) During SimpsonÃ¢â¬â¢s adolescence his experiments on the wrong side of the law would change his life forever. At the age of 13, he joined a local gang known as the Persian Warriors where Simpson would engage in stealing and getting into fights. One fight landed him at the San Francisco Youth Guidance Center for about a week in 1962. (Karpinski, 2012). SimpsonÃ¢â¬â¢s early interests in sports were strongly encouraged by his mother. When Simpson attended Galileo High School he played for the school football team, the Galileo Lions. Simpson, however, didnÃ¢â¬â¢t have the grades to go on to a reputable school and instead played at City College of San Francisco. (A&E Television Networks). At City College, Simpson quickly garnered notice averaging 9. 3 yards per carry and scoring fifty-four touchdowns. Of the fifty colleges that tried to recruit him after his sophomore year, Simpson chose the University of Southern California in which his career began to unravel. (Karpinski, 2012). At the University of Southern California, He played running-back for the football team between 1967 and 1968. In 1967 he ran 1,451 yards and scored 11 touchdowns. In 1968, he led the nation, running 1,709 yards. Simpson was a key player in what is regarded as one of the greatest American football games of the 20th century. Starring in the 1967 USC vs.Ã UCLA football game, his 64-yard touchdown run in the 4th quarter tied the game. Simpson enjoyed the attention of the nation playing in a national championship game and setting college football records with his physical abilities and charming personality. Before signing his first NFL contract, Simpson had already signed a three-year, $250,000, endorsement deal with Chevrolet. Before he played in his first NFL game, he had already made a guest appearance on the television drama, Ã¢â¬Å"Medical Center. Ã¢â¬ Simpson was drafted by the Buffalo Bills with the first pick of the draft. His first few years in the NFL were uneventful. He was rarely used in his rookie season, gaining only 697 yards in 1969. The following year he suffered a knee-injury. Also known by his nickname, The Juice, Simpson topped 1,000 yards rushing five consecutive years from 1972 to 1976 and led the National Football League four times. In 1973 he became the first NFL player to rush for over 2,000 yards in a season. In 1979, after being traded to the San Francisco 49ers, Simpson retired from the NFL ending his football career. After completing his career with the San Francisco 49ers and retiring from professional football in 1979, Simpson moved on to a profitable career in television commercials, as a sportscaster and an actor. He appeared in several films called The Klansman and Naked Gun. On June 24, 1967, Simpson married Marguerite L. Whitley. They had three children, including Aaren Lashone Simpson, born on September 24, 1977. Tragically, Aaren drowned in a swimming pool at the family home just before her second birthday. This was a very difficult time for both Simpson and Marguerite. Marguerite and Simpson divorced in 1979, just months after the incident. (Orenthal J. Simpson). SimpsonÃ¢â¬â¢s second marriage was to Nicole Brown, in 1985. Nicole and Simpson had two children named Sydney and Justin. Nicole Brown Simpson often complained to friends and family that Simpson would often hit and beat her, but he denied ever hitting her. Nicole filed for divorce in 1992 and in 1989 he had been charged with domestic violence against her and pleaded no contest. SimpsonÃ¢â¬â¢s reputation, however, was unharmed and he received a relatively light sentence of probation, community service and fines. On June 12, 1994, with two small children lying in their beds asleep, Nicole and friend Ronald Goldman were both found stabbed to death outside of her home. Detectives immediately focused their investigation on Simpson for committing the murders. Simpson, away on a business trip received the news. On June 17, after failing to turn himself in, he became a part of a low-speed pursuit in a white Ford Bronco SUV that interrupted coverage of the 1994 NBA Finals. During this speed chase Simpson held a gun to his head to commit suicide but did not go through with it. The pursuit, arrest, and trial were among the most widely publicized events in American history. The trial, often characterized as Ã¢â¬Å"the trial of the century,Ã¢â¬ ended on October 3, 1995 in a jury verdict of not guilty for the two murders. O. J. SimpsonÃ¢â¬â¢s defense counsel included Johnnie Cochran, Robert Kardashian, and F. Lee Bailey. (Cerasini, 1994) The verdict was seen live on TV by more than half of the U. S. population, making it one of the most watched events in American TV history. Though acquitted, many people still considered Simpson to be guilty. In 1997, a civil court found Simpson responsible for their wrongful deaths of Brown and Goldman, and ruled against him for a $33. 5 million judgment which Simpson was ordered to pay. In 2006, O. J. Simpson once again entered the spotlight by producing a book, titled, Ã¢â¬Å"If I did itÃ¢â¬ , in which Simpson writes a first-person fictional account of the murders as if he had actually committed them. This controversial book was withdrawn by the publisher just before its release. The book was later released by the Goldman family with the edited title of Ã¢â¬Å"If I Did It: Confessions of the Killer . The Goldman family still believes that O. J. Simpson killed Nicole Brown. (Cerasini, 1994) In September 2007, Simpson was arrested in Las Vegas, Nevada, and charged with several felonies, including armed robbery and kidnapping. In 2008 he was found guilty and sentenced to a 33-year prison sentence, with a minimum of nine years in prison without a chance of parole. In June of 2011, O. J. Simpson again returned to the public eye as speculation rose about a potential interview with Oprah Winfrey, who publicly commented that she wanted to interview Simpson for her Oprah Winfrey Network, and wanted to ask im if he did, indeed, kill Nicole Brown and Ronald Goldman. The talk show host made headlines saying that one of her regrets was never having got Simpson to confess to the killing. And it appears her wish may well have come true with reports that Simpson has already told one of her producers in an interview from jail that he knifed ex-wife Nicole in self-defense claiming that he had got into an argument outside of NicoleÃ¢â¬â¢s home and she had threatened him with a knife. Orenthal James Simpson is currently serving his sentence at the Lovelock Correctional Center in Lovelock, Nevada. Cerasini, 1994) With all things considered, OJ Simpson had an eventful childhood. Although he gained fame for his sporting achievements throughout his adolescence he became infamous after being accused of murdering his ex-wife, Nicole Brown Simpson and her friend, Ronald Goldman. Orenthal James Simpson went from having a successful life to being known as a criminal. And although it may have seemed that he got away with murder, his life story shows that in the end people will pay for the crimes they will commit.
Sunday, November 10, 2019
First published in 1813, Pride and Prejudice has consistently been Jane AustenÃ¢â¬â¢s most popular novel. It portrays life in the genteel rural society of the day. Jane Austen is considered by many the first real novelist, she had a very unique style of writing when she wrote all of her books, this is what I believe appealed to her readers, the style that she used was described as Ã¢â¬Ëcomedy of mannersÃ¢â¬â¢. The comedy of manners satirizes the manners and affectations of a social class, often represented by stock characters, such as Mr. Collins. It has been the blueprint for romantic fiction in the writing world. Marriage is a pivotal theme in Pride and Prejudice, the conventions were different in the nineteenth century they were expected to marry for their own financial security. They also had to be married to a higher ranked man but within the same range of class, for example in the book when Charlotte Lucas marries Mr. Collins, they did not love each other but it suited them both to marry. Charlotte Lucas wanted a husband who could financially support her and Mr. Collins was on the hunt for a suitable young wife. He already had asked his cousin and main character in the book Elizabeth Bennet to marry him, she reluctantly disagreed but her mother was not concerned about her feelings, Mrs. Bennet wanted to see all her daughters married Austen uses a lot of different techniques through out the book, she uses a range of satire which is a form of humour where the writer or speaker tries to make the reader or listener have a negative opinion about someone, by laughing at them, making them seem ridiculous or foolish etc. Jane Austen also uses a lot of irony in this book it is a form of humour. When the speaker or writer says one thing but wants you to understand something different, they are being ironic, and example in the book would be where Mr. Bennet has a conversation with his wife about Bingley, he is a very satirical and ironic character because of his extreme politeness and playful innocence, which in result upset Mrs. Bennet. That provides humour for the reader as a result of her dramatic character. Mrs. BennetÃ¢â¬â¢s character is not ironic in the least, but it is the blending of both characters that bring about the irony. Such foils points out to the readers the ridiculousness of human nature. One empathises with Mr. Bennet; his suffering and dissatisfaction is shown through his desire for privacy, his cynical view of mankind, irresponsibility towards his daughters and his indifference, resentment and sarcasm towards his wife. It is a truth universally acknowledged, that every man in possession of a good fortune must be in want of a wife. However little known the feelings or views of such a man may be on his first entering a neighbourhood, this truth is so well fixed in the minds of the surrounding families, that he is considered as the rightful property of some one or other of their daughters. These lines can be read as a statement of fact, Austen is saying that this is just how her contemporaries think, and it is very likely that many of her readers have nodded their agreement to this wise recognition. There is also a sense, however, that such a widely-held view runs the risk of stupidity: some men in possession of a good fortune may see no reason at all for taking a wife, and in any case are not likely to enjoy being viewed as a prize by mothers of eligible daughters. In Pride and Prejudice this is indeed how Mrs Bennet will treat Mr Bingley, and her insensitive presumption begins the novels comedy. Mrs. Bennet has a certain attitude towards marriage; I think Austen wrote Mrs. Bennet in to the story as someone who she is the total opposite too. I think Jane Austen expresses herself through Elizabeth in this novel, she saw herself as a revolutionary woman. In the words of Mrs. Bennet Ã¢â¬Å"If I can see one of my daughters happily married at NetherfieldÃ¢â¬ ¦ I shall wish for nothing more,Ã¢â¬ in this quote she is implying that she does not care about her daughters happiness, mainly for hers. She disguises it very well though, it is made out that she wants what is best for her daughters but she wants her own fortune when she is older. Mr. CollinsÃ¢â¬â¢ attitude is to get married to a presentable woman in his standard of class. He firstly asks his cousin Elizabeth to marry him, she says no, but he continues to insist, finally he gets the point and asks her best friend to marry him. Mrs. Bennet wanted her daughters married and tries to encourage Elizabeth. Charlotte Lucas (ElizabethÃ¢â¬â¢s best friend) accepts his proposal. I think that Mr. Collins asked Charlotte because I think he may want to make Elizabeth envy them. The quote I choose to make my point with is from chapter 19 and reads Ã¢â¬Å"May I hope, madam, for your interest with your fair daughter Elizabeth, when I solicit for the honour of a private audience with her in the course of this morning? Before Elizabeth had time for anything but a blush of surprise, Mrs. Bennet answered instantly, Ã¢â¬Å"Oh dear! -Yes-certainly. I am sure Lizzy will be very happy-I am sure she can have no objection, Come, Kitty, I want you upstairs.Ã¢â¬ And, gathering her work together, she was hastening away, when Elizabeth called out: Ã¢â¬Å"Dear madam, do not go. I beg you will not go. Mr. Collins must excuse me. He can have nothing to say to me that anybody need not hear. I am going away myself.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"No, no, nonsense, Lizzy. I desire you to stay where you are.Ã¢â¬ And upon ElizabethÃ¢â¬â¢s seeming really, with vexed and embarrassed looks, about to escape, she added: Ã¢â¬Å"Lizzy, I INSIST upon your staying and hearing Mr. Collins.Ã¢â¬ Elizabeth would not oppose such and injunction-and a momentÃ¢â¬â¢s consideration making her also sensible that it would be wisest to get it over as soon and as quietly as possible, she sat down again and tried to conceal, by incessant employment the feelings which were divided between distress and diversion. Mrs. Bennet and Kitty walked off, and as soon as they were gone, Mr. Collins began.Ã¢â¬ Charlotte Lucas married Mr. Collins, I think her attitude is to be financially secure, I also think she is a little envious of her best friend Elizabeth. I think this quote portrays just that Ã¢â¬Å"The Bennets were engaged to dine with the Lucases and again during the chief of the day was Miss Lucas so kind as to listen to Mr. Collins. Elizabeth took an opportunity of thanking her. Ã¢â¬Å"It keeps him in good humour,Ã¢â¬ said she, Ã¢â¬Å"and I am more obliged to you than I can express.Ã¢â¬ Charlotte assured her friend of her satisfaction in being useful, and that it amply repaid her for the little sacrifice of her time. This was very amiable, but CharlotteÃ¢â¬â¢s kindness extended farther than Elizabeth had any conception of; its object was nothing else than to secure her from any return of Mr. CollinsÃ¢â¬â¢s addresses, by engaging them towards herself.Ã¢â¬ Elizabeth has a very strong personality she is independent, and very strong headed. There are many quotes that I could select for this, but my selected quote would be Ã¢â¬Å"You are mistaken, Mr. Darcy, if you suppose that the mode of your declaration affected me in any other way, than as it spared me the concern which I might have felt in refusing you, had you behaved in a more gentleman-like manner.Ã¢â¬ I chose this quote because this shows that she does not marry just for money, it is a very respectable deed. Darcy is a very arrogant and rich man; he seems to have a very odd relationship with Elizabeth. He is almost perfect in the eyes of a woman; he was rich, handsome, clever and witty. Ã¢â¬Å"And taking her hand, he would have given it to Mr. Darcy who, though extremely surprised, was not unwilling to receive it, when she instantly drew back, and said with some discomposure to Sir William- Ã¢â¬Å"indeed, sir, I have not any intention of dancing. I entreat you not to suppose that I moved this way in order to beg for a partner.Ã¢â¬ This quote shows how arrogant Darcy is. In conclusion I think that AustenÃ¢â¬â¢s final message regarding marriage is that one should not marry for money, but marry for love. She portrays herself in my opinion through Elizabeth and Darcy was a dream couple.
Friday, November 8, 2019
buy custom Types of Internet Fraud essay Introduction Courts are equally inhibited as the rest of the administration organizations in dealing with internet fraud and cyber crimes. According to Robert Jones, prosecutors avoid applying new laws and regulations to fight cyber fraud but instead choose to apply old statutes and legislations that have been tested and proved to work to ovoid pilling up of cases without sufficient evidence. Examples of internet frauds legislations in the U.S. target the following crimes: Wire fraud, Mail fraud, Financial Institution fraud, access devise fraud, computer fraud and abuse, identity theft and aggravated identity theft (Jones 2005). Internet fraud has registered the fewest criminal indictments because of the secrecy with which the crimes are committed. Types of Internet Fraud Phishing internet Fraud However, the United States courts have dealt with a few cases involving phishing. For example, in California, a juvenile was arrested and judged in 2003 for setting up a falsified AOL site in which the accused paid $3,500 to settle charged and damages. Another instance is when a Nevada resident set up a fake auto dealers website where customers could log in and make payments whereby the owner of the website captured private information such as passwords and usernames of car dealers (Jones 2005). The culprit used the password and usernames information to steal a total of$47,000 U.S. dollars from the accounts whose information he had captured through the falsified website that are almost similar to the real website. Even though the criminal tried to cover up his tracks by using a fake the internet identity, when arrested, the criminal pledged guilty. In New York, Howard Carmack from Buffalo was forced to pay ISP Earthlink a total of $16.4 million for damages. Howard is believed to have sent 825 million messages between 20002 and 2004. In Virginia, a judge sentenced a spam criminal using anti-spam law that convicted the suspect with 9 years in prison (Jones 2005). The aim of the conviction is to deter spammers, con artists and identity thieves from taking advantage of innocent users through phishing mail, web page and spam messages. Passing out large quantities of email and RSS feed is sometimes considered a crime if the recipients of the spam or solicited mail complain to authorities. Using of email and website pop-ups for advertisement is part of internet fraud that is classified under phishing. Phishing is a defined as a sophisticated scam whereby emails and message pop-ups are created claiming its source to be from a known business company. Since the mission of phishing is to mislead and convince the victim to give personal details or purchase some product or service, phishing thus interfers with social life in case where viruses are attached with phishing messages and pop-ups. Anti-phishing tactics and mechanisms have bee deployed by various security companies to counter theft and crime activities. Internet service providers like Yahoo, Gmail, Paypal and eBay are using sophisticated antiphishing software to block out malicious persons agenda (Boone Kurtz 2010). Payment Fraud Payment fraud is another form of internet fraud in which e-retailers and sellers place orders online for consumers to place their orders and pay through credit card by just entering credit card number and password identification information that can easily be stored and be used later by the online criminal gangs (Boone Kurtz 2010). Mail-Order Bribe Mail Order bribe fraud is another form of fraud that encompass all forms of scams that agencies masquerading as women to solicit money from men who use mail-order bride to date women. Usually a woman approaches countless men offering her love through messages in return for money and fare nut these women disappear never to be seen since it is easy to change the online nick name. Worse, some men pretend to be women while maintaining a virtual relationship with a man to defraud money (Moore 2010). White collar crime Most businesses stereotype theft with poverty and lack but today the white collar criminals are much worse since they steal using intelligent means. Financial crimes are tough to investigate since clear and convincing evidence is required by a court of law before the prosecution can pass a judgment (Goetz 2011). Financial crimes taking place in the internet are associated with full disclosure of information to a third party through the internet communications. Therefore, organizations and businesses ought to be aware when required to disclose information and when not necessary so as to avoid giving sensitive and secret passwords to internet hackers. Tracing Internet Crime Internet forensic argue that internet crime scene can be traced using the IP address of the server or layout files on web that act as fingerprints to the crime committed. Researchers have come up with a strategic method to impenetrate firewall and steal encrypted information stored at a remote computer. The process of stealing information remotely is called hacking. Therefore, it is very easy for a financial company operating electronic money transfer deals to become a target for hackers. Impacts of Internet Fraud Internet Fraud is a barrier to e-businesss, e-commerce and production. According to the Internet Crime Complaint Center as reported by Louis E. Boone and David L. Kurtz (2010) maintains that the FBI and the White collar Crime Taskforce (IC3). IC3 has indicated that the majority of internet crimes target fraud related to online auctioning. Online auction fraud is the fraudulent sale and purchase of merchandise from the disallowed internet sellers without assurance of whether the website systems are protected from third party hackers (Moore 2010). Auction fraud can include a seller sending a buyer wrong merchandise followed by credit and debit card theft. Application of internet in production and theft Internet components have helped business to improve on productivity and profitability. One of the best business computer applications is the human resource information system that is an automated payroll besides satisfying other important human resource tasks assigned to the application according to the size of each company. However, lack of proper anti-phishing and spam protection can cause the HRIS to collapse if a virus is downloaded into the system by an innocent worker surfing internet. Therefore, though the internet has streamlined business functions, companies have to face the ever changing faceless internet fraud that usually increases costs of conducting business. The most common spam is the Nigerian 419 scheme that refers to phishing activity of sending millions of spasm mails to anyone asking for financial information claiming to look for a custodian to secretly move millions of dollars to the victims account (ICANN WHOIS 2007). Con artists use such messages to con the pu blic and even business that fall for the prank taking it for a big financial breakthrough. Vulnerable groups to phishing and internet fraud According to Patti C. Wooten Swanson, elderly people particularly above the age of 60 years are more susceptible to internet fraud than the young who easily Google to confirm and ascertain claims spreading in the internet networks (2009). An area of future research includes research to find out statistically out of 10 internet scams which is the most common? Thus one research determined that phishing comprised 24%, lotteries 19%, internet access services 19%, Nigeria 419 financial schemes 13%, and prizes and sweepstakes 13% of online scams respectively (Swanson 2009). Conclusion In conclusion, internet fraud is a reality that is affecting the most ignorant and most vulnerable in the society because hackers remain isolated and faceless though their IP address can be traced, those who use public internet access remain predominantly unknown and therefore will continue with phishing activities. Buy custom Types of Internet Fraud essay
Wednesday, November 6, 2019
Economic Enviornment Of Fdi In Uae Economics Essay Essay Example Economic Enviornment Of Fdi In Uae Economics Essay Essay Economic Enviornment Of Fdi In Uae Economics Essay Essay Mr Ali feels that they would be small affected by the Torahs and hopes that the growing of company continues. 5.0 Decision The environment for FDI in UAE is positive and has been pulling financess in the state from all over the universe. FDI has been a major cause of the GDP growing and creative activity of its image as a globalized economic system. The state gives entree to states to the trading universe therefore broadening their client base economically due to absence of trade barriers in the state. Creation of free trade zones is the major attractive force to corporate investors and multinationals from all over the universe. Most FDI have taken signifier of forward perpendicular or horizontal integrating. However, over a period of clip, although the policies have been modified to liberalise the trading environment and attractive force of FDI, the authorities has failed to take notice of the increasing costs of operations bared by the companies. Therefore, endurance of little sized concerns in the state can be put to inquiry in the hereafter. Nevertheless, in general the economic environment of the st ate seems to be in favor of investors and the potency of UAE as FDI drawing card is strong and that the state will go on to harvest benefits from FDI s in signifier of increased employment, competition, and high profile life styles enjoyed by its occupants.
Sunday, November 3, 2019
Reflection on Demonstrating a Skill - Personal Statement Example This paper is a reflection of a demonstration of a skill to a peer. I employed Gibbs' reflective cycle which is fairly straightforward and encourages a clear description of the situation, analysis of feelings, evaluation of the experience, analysis to make sense of the experience, conclusion where other options are considered and reflection upon experience to examine what I would do if the situation arose again. So while I was there at the clinic where I work, I figured there is someone I can help on some skills. Turns out that there was a student nurse who was in placement for the day, to assist and to observe, and to learn in the process. To prep up, I established some rapport with her so she would feel comfortable with me when the time comes that I would have to teach her some new skills. I also arranged and prepared the things that would possibly be necessary for the work ahead for the day, asking her assistance when necessary so she would become acquainted with them. The first patient arrived, a ten year old girl with her mom, and I greeted them with a smile to make them feel at ease. As a standard procedure, the patient's name was withheld in accordance with The Code of Professional Conduct (NMC 2002). While doing so, I introduced myself and the student nurse to the patient and her mother and explained exactly what my work entailed and what I was going to do. Afterwards, we checked the patient's health concern and apparently, the child is suffering from asthma from time to time and as an aid, she needs to know how to take her inhaler through a large volume spacer to help her with her condition. As such, she needed to know how to use the device so she can readily utilize it when the need arises. So in essence, I had three students watching me demonstrate how to use the device --- the patient, her mother and the student nurse. In this case, I utilized two teaching styles: patient-centered and student-centered. I showed them the device and demonstrated how to put the device together, how to use the spacer and how to maintain it. I did this in a relaxed and open manner to give them an impression that it is rather easy to do it, and then asked the patient to demonstrate back to me what I had just taught them. This is important to see if the patient has understood what has been conveyed to them. Kemm, et al (1995) states that a client is more likely to want to assimilate information that has been conveyed to them, if the planned learning is relevant and made interesting to the individual client. Besides the patient, I also asked the student nurse to demonstrate the skill back to me. In promoting learning in practice, mutual respect and valuing the merit of passing on nursing skills through practice-based learning is crucial (Glen and Parker, 2003). I also provided verbal guidance and encouragement to the patient and guided her when necessary. Role models, according to Morton-Cooper and Palmer (2002), provide an observable image for imitation, demonstrating skills and qualities for mentees to emulate. The patient's visit ended well and before she and her mother left, both of them assured me that they are already confident that they can utilize the device properly and with much practice, it is going to be easier after a while. Hopefully, the new skill helps the patient with easing her poor health condition. Truthfully speaking, I am fully aware that the teaching session went well. I would credit it to the fact that my mentors taught me
Friday, November 1, 2019
The ideal healthcare system - Essay Example This essay describes the components of an ideal healthcare system. An ideal health care system is one that efficiently serves the needs of the community. It has the ability to provide primary health care information to patients, research and health care services (Holtz, 2008). It is clear that an ideal health care system cannot be established without the contribution of the right people. This has led to the establishment of new roles for a willing community, researchers and nurses (Atlas, 2010). The community will have to take a larger role in establishing an ideal medical care system. Researchers will play an increased role since they are responsible for coming up with health initiatives that are aimed at improving health care provision to all the citizens. Well-trained medical practitioners including doctors and nurses should be included in the establishment of an ideal health care system. An ideal health care system should have improved costs. To begin with, it should be noted that medical care should be available to all citizens. It is therefore important to come up with ways of improving access to health care by cutting down on costs. The surest way of improving costs of health care provision is by encouraging all citizens to apply for medical insurance. This is owing to the fact that medical insurance gradually reduces the medical costs incurred by patients (Holtz, 2008). Additionally, subsidies should be given to individuals who are insured and those who are not insured should be penalized. Medical insurers should come up with friendly insurance policies that ensure inclusion of most members of the population (Atlas, 2010). On the other hand, hospitals should look for investors to fund their operations that in turn will lower the costs of health care provision. Finally, the government should play a greater role in funding the health care provision to promote impr oved health care costs. There are