Friday, December 27, 2019
Pornogrophy is currently as legal in the United States and Canada as alcohol and tylenol, but should it be? Firstly, we must define what pornogrophy constitutes, as it can be seen as anything from a raunchy adult comedy to Penthouse Magazine. It seems as though many definitions of porogrophy use terms like that of Ã¢â¬Å"explicitÃ¢â¬ sex, but that is only a surface-level conclusion. Within Sociology, pornogrophy is defined, typically, in three ways: Functional, Genre, and Labelling. Functional definitions of pornogrophy put forward that pornogrophy is anything used for the intentional purpose of sexual arousal (Goode, 1997). However, this is noted as a broad statement, as even the likes of romantic novels could be concidered as pornogrophy if an individual uses it to become aroused. Genre definitions suggest that pornography is described as a product created for the purpose of sexual arousal. However, this also causes issues in definition, as products like that of the Sports Illus trated swimsuit issue may be seen as intentional sexual arousal and also simple photography. Labelling definitions suggest that pornography is anything that a community deem as obscene (Goode, 1997). This view is the most commonly supported view in law, as even the Canadian Criminal Code defines what is considered obscenity under Section 163. Again, however, we have to question this view because it only takes into account what individuals tolerate other individuals seeing and not what they themselves
Thursday, December 19, 2019
Juan Linares Mr. Maust English IV AP 26 September 2015 Thematic Project Outline Introduction Thesis. Existentialists focus on the question that is a concrete human existence, and the conditions of such existence; they do not dwell on a hypothesis for human essence, instead they stress that this essence is determined by an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s own life choices. Although humans live in the world, a distance is created in order to add meaning to the disinterested world; however, this meaning is fragile and can be disturbed by tragedy or insight. When this disturbance occurs, and humanÃ¢â¬â¢s precarious lives crumble, the true nature of the world is revealed; a nature that shows little importance for humans; this way of thinking created the, post WWII era, worldwide explosion of ambiguous literature, and the sensory perception of art and music; heavily influenced by the idea of human worthlessness. Literature- Existentialism, though it had been present since the 19th century, came of age in the mid-20th Century. This was largely through the scholarly and fictional works of the French existentialists, Jean-Paul Sartre, Albert Camus and Simone de Beauvoir. The heavily influenced post WWII movement spurred up a whole new way of thinking. Sartre made the movement popular in that he defined Ã¢â¬Å"ExistentialismÃ¢â¬ and wrote many works solely centered on his views. Simone de Beauvoir- An important existentialist who spent much of her life alongside Sartre, wrote about feminism, and existential ethicsShow MoreRelatedQuestions On Natural Knowledge Of God1679 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesworks doing this are available. What is important, given the interests of this study, is the following statement by Lonergan in the Epilogue: [O]ur first eighteen chapters were written solely in the light of human intelligence and reasonableness and without any presupposition of GodÃ¢â¬â¢s existence, without any appeal to the authority of the church, and without any explicit deference to the genius of St Thomas Aquinas. At the same time, our first eighteen chapters were followed by a nineteenth and twentiethRead MoreMeaning of Life1425 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesit can be referred to as existence itself Ãâ" the specifically mode of being, the meaning of existence, and striving to find concrete meaning in personal existence, which is the will to meaning. Existence itself, in simpler terms is just existing and the human mode itself. The meaning of existence is the question in which we often ask ourselves; Why are we here? When we strive to find concrete meaning in personal existence, we are looking for the personal meaning for existence. Basically what FranklRead More The Meaning of Life According to Victor E. Frankl Essay142 1 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesit can be referred to as existence itself Ã¢â¬â the specifically mode of being, the meaning of existence, and striving to find concrete meaning in personal existence, which is the will to meaning. Existence itself, in simpler terms is just existing and the human mode itself. The meaning of existence is the question in which we often ask ourselves; Why are we here? When we strive to find concrete meaning in personal existence, we are looking for the personal meaning for existence. Basically what FranklRead MoreThe Theory Of Human Matter1179 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesHumans, being made of flesh, bone, and sinew, as a whole are consider material objects. This is concept of human matter is normally referred to as the body. However, unlike other nonconscious objects made of matter, humans have a somewhat unique ability to create abstract opinions and thoughts. At this time we are the only species to have the ability formulate explanations for our own existence. Ess entially stating that, we humans have minds . The two general aspects that make up the thing weRead MoreGlobal Competition: Culture and Tourism1070 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesit also can we take advantage to make our country as the world promotion. The development of the world culture as icons make important to maintain themselves in the middle of the era of competition, culture is a symbol of system and meaning in a human society which contained the norms and values of social relationship and behavior become the true identity of a country. Cultural wealth makes a humor behavior patterns are increasingly diverse, the attitude of cooperation in building a nation. theRead MoreSamuel Beckett s Waiting For Godot1696 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesWaiting for Godot are dependant upon each other for reassurance of their existence. Existentialism is defined as being grounded in existence or being able to affirm existence. Vladimir and Estragon are able to confirm their existence in the world is by the constant need to remind each other of what is happening. Estragon forgets every day what events occurred the previous day. The forgetfulness cast doubt on the actual existence of these two men. Vladimir needs to tell Estragon every day what happenedRead MoreSustainable Concrete Technology950 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesSustainable Concrete Technology What Is Covered? 1. Behavior of concrete and cement systems 2. Durability performance of Concrete 3. Sustainability Of Construction WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s good about concrete? Ã¢â¬ ¢ Strong Ã¢â¬ ¢ Potentially Durable Ã¢â¬ ¢ Cheap Ã¢â¬ ¢ Availability Ã¢â¬ ¢ Can be made on site Ã¢â¬ ¢ Can easily be shaped Ã¢â¬ ¢ Can work as composites with reinforcing materials to overcome its low tensile strength Ã¢â¬ ¢ Use of admixtures can alter the properties Ã¢â¬ ¢ Lightweight What is the role of cement in concrete? Ã¢â¬ ¢ Bonds theRead MoreNatural Knowledge Of God And The Function Of Systematics1553 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesquestion itself to lie beneath the differences. He explains, [H]owÃ ¬ever much religious or irreligious answers differ, however much there differ the questions they explicitly raise, still at their root there is the same transcendental tendency of the human spirit that questions, that questions without restriction, that questions the significance of its own questioning, and so comes to the question of God. It is important to note the discursivity involved in the emergence of the question of God. It isRead More The Perspective of Plato and Aristotle on the Value of Art Essay1372 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe Perspective of Plato and Aristotle on the Value of Art Ã As literary critics, Plato and Aristotle disagree profoundly about the value of art in human society. Plato attempts to strip artists of the power and prominence they enjoy in his society, while Aristotle tries to develop a method of inquiry to determine the merits of an individual work of art. It is interesting to note that these two disparate notions of art are based upon the same fundamental assumption: that art is a form of mimesisRead MoreThe Theory Of Fictional Characters2125 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagesconceptions and practices of literature when concerning fictional characters. Being that fictional characters are created solely in the works of literature (at least the fictional characters we are pondering ) it makes common sense for the conditions to allow their existence to be described by literature. Section 1 of this paper is devoted to outlining the main tenets of ThomassonÃ¢â¬â¢s theory with some comparative examples from other accounts of fictional characters. In section 2, I begin my argument in support
Wednesday, December 11, 2019
Question: Discuss about theGenetic Engineering for Genetically Modified Plant. Answer: Introduction The year of 1946 lead to the discovery of the process of DNA transmission between two organisms (James, 2011). The discovery of the DNA transmission concept lead to the foundation of first genetically modified (GM) plant in the year of 1983 via employing antibiotic-resistant tobacco plant. In the domain of commercial crop, China can be regarded as the first country to commercialize the transgenic crop during early 1990s via the introduction of the virus resistant tobacco gene (Sralini et al., 2011). Year of 1994 experienced the introduction of the Flavour Saver Tomato, as FDA (Food and Drug Administration) approved for its marketing is USA (Sralini et al., 2011). This report sheds light on the debate of the whether genetically engineered BT brinjal is unfit for consumption. Need for the Production of BT Brinjal The production of BT brinjal took place in India and the main concept behind the production of the BT brinjal is to cut short the harmful effects of the pesticides over the crop plant (Bandopadhyay, Sinha Chaudhary, 2012). It is well known that the farmers often loos a huge amount of crops or vegetables due to the attack of insects. In order to reduce the pest attack there are pesticides. Although it was successful in providing temporary relief, but the economic burden over the framers was high. On the other hand, the end consumers have no choices but to thrive on the insect damaged fruits or crops which are high on pesticide content. Brinjal is highly susceptible for insect attack and since in India and other neighbouring countries like Bangladesh, Pakistan, China and Myanmar, Brinjal was one of the most edible vegetables, scientists planned to frame a transgenic brinjal which is shielded from the pesticide attack (Bawa Anilakumar, 2013). This concept leads to the foundation of th e BT Brinjal. The Transgenic Mechanism behind the Production of BT Brinjal BT Brinjal is a transgenic brinjal developed via insertion of the transgenic gene (cry 1Ac gene). cry 1Ac gene encodes for the insecticidal protein, which confers resistance against the fruit and shoot borer (FSB) (Banerji, 2010). The cry 1Ac gene is derived from the Bacillus thuringiensis (BT), an ubiquitous soil bacterium. It has been frequently used for several biological control measures against the FSB via mixing in granular powder. The insertion of the BT gene occurs inside the cell of the young cotyledons of the brinjal and is facilitated by the use of the agro bacterium vector mediated transgenesis. Maharashtra Hybrid Seeds Company (Mahyco), a leading Indian seed company, has designed a new DNA construct to aid the process of transgenesis. This gene construct contain the cry1 Ac gene along with two other supporting genes namely nptll and aad genes. These genes are arranged in such a way that they express in tandem to produce insecticidal protein. The transcription of the cry 1Ac gene is further enhanced via expressing it under the influence of the CaMV35S promoter (P-E35S). Figure: The gene construct used of BT brinjal (Source: Banerji, 2010) Utility of BT Brinjal The utility of the BT Brinjal lies in several spheres of cultivation. BT brinjal thus produced via transgeneis required negligible or nor use of the pesticides and thus reduce the environmental impact of the harmful pesticides. Moreover, less use of the pesticides promote less exposure of pesticides, leading to reduced level of human pesticide poisoning. The cultivation of the BT brinjal also showed favourable response in the increase in the crop yield thus facilitating the farmers economically. It also reduces the amount of pesticide residues on the food. Figure: The benefits of BT Brinjal Source: Created by author Limitation of the Transgenic Process Process limitation Gene Exchange is only possible between closely related species Time quotient It takes significant amount of time in order to achieve the desired results Less chance of positive results There is less chance of obtaining accurate cross Undesired gene transmission Harmful or faulty gene may get transmitted with the gene of interest due to lack of the precision of the site specific recombination Gene Loss Even after successful transmission, the gene gets lost due to the random recombination between the parent gene (Holme, Wendt Holm, 2013) Harmful Effects of the BT Brinjal According to the professor Gilles-Eric Seralini, a French scientist of the Committee for Independent Research and Information on Genetic Engineering (CRIIGEN), the BT Brinjal though scoring high in terms of the pesticide control activity, impose a serious threat to the health of both human and animal (De Vendmois et al., 2010). Health Impact BT brinjal produce a special protein the vegetative cell that generates antibiotic resistance within the body (Verma et al., 2011). This generation of the antibiotic resistance is considered as the major health care problem and it extremely significant in the of the Multi Drug Resistant (MDR) bacteria. BT brinjal contain 15% less calories and a completely different alkaloid pattern than that of the non-genetically modified brinjal. However, it contains 16 to 17 mg/Kg of BT insecticide toxin. This BT toxin hampers the equilibrium of the blood corpuscles leading to the difficulty in blood clotting (prothrombin) and total bilirubin (health of the liver) (Francisco, 2014). Effects on Rat Effect on Cow Effect on Birds Effect on Fish The safety quotient of BT brinjal when tested over rat, it experienced diarrhoea, increase in the rate of water consumption and decreases in the weight of liver. The effect of BT brinjal on the lactating cows showed increase in the appearance of the BT toxin in the milk and in the blood. However, the cows feeding on BT brinjal showed greater production of milk when kept on low hormone therapy (Chong, 2015) The effect of BT brinjal consumption on broiler chickens showed decreased in their food consumption along with increase in the blood sugar level The average food conversion and the efficiency ratios were significantly high on the BT brinjal consuming fishes Debate of the BT Brinjal Keeping the health hazards in mind, there are several controversies associated with the GM BT brinjal in several levels. The dilemma is whether food produced is safe or whether it should be labelled. Many problems came into consideration while using GM crops like BT brinjal; the first and foremost ethical problem which surface was tampering with mother nature. The other associated problems include health concerns faced by the consumers upon consumption of the food, evolution of the pesticide resistant pest like super bugs. Another major fact, which came into consideration, is, whether this pesticide resistant nature of the genetically modified brinjal can be passed on the weeds (Shah, 2011). If the pest resistant characteristic of the crops is transferred to their weedy relatives, then it may lead to the increases in the amount of weed in the cultivating field, imposing a series threat to the farmers (Shah, 2011). This dilemma led to serious controversies behind the acceptance of the BT brinjal in the market. Year Event 2000 Integration of the cry1Ac gene into brinjal hybrids 2001 to 2002 Development of the efficacy of the BT brinjal 2002 to 2004 Confined trials over the field to study the pollen flow, weediness and germination 2004 Approval for the multi-location trails over the seven different BT hybrids 2005 The data obtained via trail was submitted to the review committee 2006 Recommendation of the large scale trial 2007 Supreme court of India bans the trial due to the possible threat on the mankind 2008 Indian Institute of Vegetable Research (IIVR) gets approval for the trial 2009 IIVR submits the large scale trial data but stakeholders raise the concerns against the validity and the safety of the crop 2009 In response to the strong view against the crop, the release of the BT brinjal was upheld Table: Chronology of the Legal Journey of BT Brinjal in India (Source: Bt-Brinjal: Production and Its Development India, 2017) Conclusion The GM crops have immense potential to solve several problems in the world like malnutrition and hunger while reducing the dependence on the synthetic pesticides and herbicides. However, there lie several challenges in successful implementation of the genetically modified crops in the market. The challenges include threats to the human health, environmental impact, regulation of the ethical and governmental policies and proper food labelling. Many scientists are of the opinion that the genetic engineering is an inevitable trend in the future because the technology is brimmed with surplus benefits which one cannot in ignore. The genetically modified BT brinjal was designed in order to decrease the chances of cultivation damage arising out of the over use of the pesticides and herbicides. However, quality testing revealed significant health and environmental impacts. So from the above discussion it can be concluded that the BT brinjal is unfit for human consumption. Moreover, considera ble efforts are required to be directed towards the understanding of the peoples attitudes towards this gene technology. References Bandopadhyay, R., Sinha, P., Chaudhary, B. (2012). Is Bt-brinjal ready for future food?--A critical study.Indian Journal of Biotechnology,11(2), 238-240. Banerji, D. (2010). Bt brinjal and GM crops: towards a reasonable policy ahead.Current Science,99(10), 1319. Bawa, A. S., Anilakumar, K. R. (2013). Genetically modified foods: safety, risks and public concernsa review.Journal of food science and technology,50(6), 1035-1046. Bt-Brinjal: Production and Its Development | India. (2017).Biology Discussion. Retrieved 14 October 2017, from https://www.biologydiscussion.com/vegetable-breeding/bt-brinjal-production-and-its-development-india/68749 Chong, M. (2005). Perception of the risks and benefits of Bt eggplant by Indian farmers.Journal of Risk Research,8(7-8), 617-634. De Vendmois, J. S., Cellier, D., Vlot, C., Clair, E., Mesnage, R., Sralini, G. E. (2010). Debate on GMOs health risks after statistical findings in regulatory tests.International journal of biological sciences,6(6), 590. Francisco, S. R. (2014). Health and Environmental Impacts of Bt Eggplant.Socioeconomic impacts of Bt eggplant, 233. Holme, I. B., Wendt, T., Holm, P. B. (2013). Intragenesis and cisgenesis as alternatives to transgenic crop development.Plant Biotechnology Journal,11(4), 395-407. James, C. (2011). Global Status of Commercialized Biotech/GM Crops. International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-biotech Applications (ISAAA). Seetharam, S. (2010). Should the Bt Brinjal controversy concern healthcare professionals and bioethicists. Sralini, G. E., Mesnage, R., Clair, E., Gress, S., De Vendmois, J. S., Cellier, D. (2011). Genetically modified crops safety assessments: present limits and possible improvements.Environmental Sciences Europe,23(1), 10. Shah, E. (2011). 'Science'in the Risk Politics of Bt Brinjal.Economic and Political Weekly, 31-38. Verma, C., Nanda, S., K Singh, R., B Singh, R., Mishra, S. (2011). A review on impacts of genetically modified food on human health.The Open Nutraceuticals Journal,4(1).
Tuesday, December 3, 2019
Introduction The management is the crucial aspect of the organization success. There are a lot of study materials and professional literature on this topic. The book In Search of Management: Culture, Chaos, and Control in Managerial Work by Tony J. Watson is devoted to the problems of the managerial work. The author is the British author and the professor at the Nottingham University Business School.Advertising We will write a custom book review sample on The Review of In Search of Management by Tony J. Watson specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More He specializes in the research on Ã¢â¬Å"organizations, managerial work, strategy-making, entrepreneurship, HRM and industrial sociologyÃ¢â¬ (Watson 2013, n.pag.). Professor Tony J. Watson gained his BA in London in 1968, MSc in Loughborough in 1972, and PhD in Nottingham in 1976 (Business school n.pag.). The author published a number of reputable works on management and strategy developme nt. His books cover the topics of his research interests including Ã¢â¬Å"the organization theory and the sociology of work; managerial, entrepreneurial, strategic and human resourcing behavior in organizations; organizational culture; and ethnographyÃ¢â¬ (Business school n.pag.). The works by Professor Watson are highly appreciated by the economists and managers. They are used as the study materials at the business schools as well. Tony J. Watson is the ongoing member of a number of the memberships and fellowships. In particular, he is a member of the Chartered Fellow of the Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development (CPID), the member of the editorial boards of Human Relations, Journal of Management Studies, and Personal Review (Business school n.pag.). He is also an ongoing member of the British Academy of Management (Business school n.pag.). Prof. Watson says that he is Ã¢â¬Å"especially enthusiastic about narrative forms of research reporting as means of teaching and p roviding insights to a range of audiences about the complexities, contradictions, pains and delights of organizational and business lifeÃ¢â¬ (Business school n.pag.). In the book In Search of Management: Culture, Chaos, and Control in Managerial Work, Tony J. Watson uncovers the problems of the managerial work from the standpoint of the attitude of the middle managers to their responsibilities and the company, for which they work.Advertising Looking for book review on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Key Points of Criticism In Search of Management presents the interesting view on the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s management as the author analyses the different aspects of the managerial work taking into consideration the responses of the middle class managers regarding their job. It can be stated that the book is unique as the majority of other authors have not considered the problem in this context. In shoul d be noted that the most part of the research on management is based on the quantitative estimation of its quality and efficiency. The central theme of the book In Search of Management is the Ã¢â¬Å"discovery of what management is look likeÃ¢â¬ (Watson 2001, n.pag.). The main goal of the author was to create the book, which would be helpful for the broad range of users. It was a challenging task taking into account the fact that people tended to draw a distinction between the Ã¢â¬Å"academicÃ¢â¬ books and the Ã¢â¬Å"practicalÃ¢â¬ manuals. It may be no accident that the author decides to present his dialogue with his management fellow. He tries to emphasize that there is a widespread opinion in the managerial community that the management in theory and the management in practice are two rather different concepts and that the academics do not capture the problems of real managerial work in their research quite often. Watson says that he tries to erase this distinction between the academic and practical management in his book In Search of Management. The author argues that Ã¢â¬Å"the managers themselves, however much they tend to scorn the very idea of theory, are inevitably theorists of a sortÃ¢â¬ (Watson 2001, p. 2). In my view, the author has achieved his goal. He masterly applies the theoretical conceptions to the practical issues arguing the strengths and weaknesses of the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s management. In addition, WatsonÃ¢â¬â¢s book is not overloaded with the terminology and, thus, is appropriate for the readers of the wide range. The book is written in the form of a story. The comprehensive language and the structure of the book support its universality. Rosemary Stewart (1994) states in her book review published in The Independent that the book can be described as the Ã¢â¬Å"diary of a professor at workÃ¢â¬ (Stewart 1994).Advertising We will write a custom book review sample on The Review of In Search of Management by Tony J. Wat son specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In Search of Management encompasses the realities of the world of management. Stewart (1994) claims that the book Ã¢â¬Å"is about people and its purpose is to help organizations surviveÃ¢â¬ (Stewart 1994, n.pag.). In my view, these words reflect the essence of the book and its value. The author puts the emphasis on the role of people in organization. That is why he tries to consider the managerial work from the standpoint of the process of communication and collaboration with people. Watson states that the efficiency of management is directly related to how well people inside the organization work together. The concept of the Ã¢â¬Å"teamÃ¢â¬ plays a vital role in his book. Watson tries to prove the idea that the long-term success of the organization is determined by the effectiveness of the team work. In his book, Watson analyses the reasons for failure of the British manufacturing companyÃ¢â ¬â¢s strategy. Although the employees of the company were rather competent in their work, the company could not progress further and was not able to compete in the market successfully. It seemed that the management lost the direction in the way of its strategy realization. The managers claimed that everyone in the organization had their task and everyone did it well but it did not helped. The author of the book argued that the problem of this company boiled down to the fact that its managers paid too much attention to the philosophical aspect of management. As a result, employees were frequently told about the values and goals of the organization. However, what the company lacked was the sufficient attention to the technical aspect of their work. The commitment of the employees was not enough to improve the performance.Advertising Looking for book review on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In Search of Management is very interesting book, which is worthy to read for both the academics and practitioners. Willmott (1995) describes the book as Ã¢â¬Å"an insightful, eloquent and entertaining account of the complexity, chaos and ambivalence that is so carefully expurgated from the majority of academic textbooks, guru handbooks and scholarly monographsÃ¢â¬ (Willmott 1995, n.pag.). It should be said that the first edition of In Search of Management was published in 1994. However, the ideas presented by the author remain urgent nowadays. Prof. Watson says that it is not surprising that his book is still popular as the factors influencing the managerial work remain the same. He states that, although the significant changes have occurred in the business world since the time of the first publishing of his book, the nature of the problems, which the managers should solve, have not been changed. Dr. David Potter claims that In Search of Management remains up-to-date as Ã¢â¬Å"t he ideas of Watson still sound very practicalÃ¢â¬ (Potter 2010, n.pag.). Conclusion In order to sum up all above mentioned, it should be said that the book In Search of Management: Culture, Chaos, and Control in Managerial Work by Tony J. Watson represents the important material for study and provides the background for further research. The author touches upon the urgent problems of the managerial work. The central theme of the book is the search of the essence of management. The analysis presented in the work is based on the interviews with the managers of the company. The author tries to explain why the commitment of employees may be not enough to achieve the goals of the company. In spite of the fact that the first edition of the book was published 19 years ago, it remains relevant today. Overall, the book In Search of Management is the interesting work, which I recommend to read everyone, who is interested in management. References Business school. Professor Tony Watson.Ã Web. Potter, D. 2010, My Cultural Reflections; Tone Watson Ã¢â¬Å"In Search of managementÃ¢â¬ . Web. Stewart, R 1994, Ã¢â¬ËBook Review / Diary of a professor at work: In search of management, Tony J Watson; Routledge, pounds 40hb, pounds 12.99pbÃ¢â¬â¢, The Independent.Ã Web. Watson, T. 2001, In Search of Management: Culture, Chaos, and Control in Managerial Work, Thomson Learning, London. Watson, T. 2013, Tony Watson. Nottingham Trent University.Ã Web. Willmott, H. 1995, In Search of Management: Culture, Chaos, and Control in Managerial Work.Ã Web. This book review on The Review of In Search of Management by Tony J. Watson was written and submitted by user Trace C. to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.