Wednesday, January 29, 2020
Strategy of Corporate Social Responsibility Essay We all know that profit an enterprise earns is not only made by itself, but also by a result of the interaction between consumers, politics and the society environment of the enterprise being at. If an enterprise wants to operate in the long run, it needs to be concerned about the problem of its surrounding environment. Also, only a corporation which can shoulder responsibilities of society and obey the rule of ethic deserves to obtain support from the society. In this essay, I am going to discuss about whether if the strategy of Corporate Social Responsibility is relevant. The concept of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), like ethics, is easy to understand: it means distinguish right from wrong, and doing right. It means being a good corporate citizen. The formal definition of social responsibility is managementÃ¢â¬â¢s obligation to make choices and take actions that will contribute to the welfare and interests of society as well as the organization (Szwajkowski, 1986: Davis et al., 1979). CSR is a kind of philosophic conception, it does not have tangible executive criteria and rules. A lack of the spirit of CSR, we cannot find the meaning and reputation of why this enterprise exists. Companies and people need profounder meaning of exist. Nowadays, CSR strategy is overall acceptable by the managers of every enterprise. However, there are numerous of people have been arguing about their different beliefs, many of the experts debate about CSR. Milton Friedman and others have argued that a corporations purpose is to maximize returns to its shareholders, and that since (in their view), only people can have social responsibilities, corporations are only responsible to their shareholders and not to society as a whole. Milton Friedman have pointed out this in his book, Capitalism and Freedom: There is one and only one social responsibility of business to use its resources and engage in activities designed to increase its profits so long as it stays within the rules of the game, which is to say, engages in open and free competition without deception or fraud (Friedman, 1962). Most of the managers and laws supported this concept in the early days. Ã¢â¬Å"Only people can h ave responsibilities. A corporation is an artificial person and in this sense may have artificial responsibilities, but Ã¢â¬ËbusinessÃ¢â¬â¢ as a whole cannot be said to have responsibilities, even in this vague senseÃ¢â¬ . (Friedman, 1970) In addition, in the 1996 speech of Roger Kerr, the argument that Ã¢â¬Å"the activities of private business are socially beneficial so long as they areÃ conducted under the rule of law and within a framework of open competition. When subjected to those disciplines, business by and large promotes its interests in a way that promotes the interests of the whole community, and, moreover, promotes the community interest more efficiently and reliably than any other economic arrangement.Ã¢â¬ (Kerr, 1996) If the corporate business take too much responsibility of society, then Basically, the function of an enterprise organisation is to create profit, and government should solve the problem of society by the taxes it imposes. I wonder if the more responsibility the enterprises take, then there are no much differences between an enterprise and government, moreover the enterprise will end up being a monopolizing organisation. On the other hand, R J Hubbard presents a different point of view from Milton Friedman and Roger Kerr. Ã¢â¬Å"shareholders arenÃ¢â¬â¢t the only group of people that have a stake in the success of a company and that other stakeholders are employees, customers, suppliers.Ã¢â¬ (Hubbard,1996) And Ã¢â¬Å"business owners and business managers should try and reconcile the interests of the various stakeholders.Ã¢â¬ (Hubbard,1996) Ã¢â¬Å"as shareholders in a company one gets certain privileges from society as delivered through government.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"limited liability, the ability to earn a dollar over and above that of the average wage or salary earner and a host of other benefits.Ã¢â¬ Thus, Ã¢â¬Å"one should not only receive these privileges but also give back to the society that has made them available.Ã¢â¬ (Hubbard, 1996) The social responsibility of business encompasses the economic, legal, ethical, and discretionary expectations that society has of organizations at a given point in time. (Carroll, 1979) To sum up, I consider Corporate Social Responsibility to be a sensible strategy. But we should not solely put emphasis on CSR without considering businessÃ¢â¬â¢s goal of maximizing profit. CSR will be desirable if corporate increase its profit though such conduct and society as a whole is the beneficiary. Nevertheless, how much responsibility should a corporate burden with? This is a constantly difficult problem to grasp. To a corporate, it should evaluate capacity itself and balance the benefits inner and outer before taking certain responsibilities. Word count : 769 Reference List Friedman, M. (2002) Capitalism and Freedom. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Hubbard, R J. (1996)The business of business is not just business Samson, D., Daft, R L. (2003)Management South Melbourne, Victoria
Tuesday, January 21, 2020
Hamlet's view of death morphs through the course of the play as he is faced with various problems and troubles that force him to deal with life differently. This holds particular significance for a modern audience who, unlike the predominately Christian audiences of Shakespeare's time, contains an assortment of perspectives on the subject. For the majority of the play, Hamlet yearns for death, but there are different tones to his yearning as he confronts death in different circumstances; from his encounter with his father's ghost to the discovery of his beloved Ophelia dead in the ground, Hamlet feels an irrepressible urge to end his life. There are obstacles that get in his way, both internal and external, and Shakespeare's play is an account of Hamlet's struggle with them. When we first meet Hamlet, he is moping around Elsinore Castle on account of his father's recent death and his mother's more recent marriage to his uncle. In the first act of the play, it has been two months since King Hamlet was laid in the groundÃ¢â¬âa fairly short time ago in terms of grief, but not so long that family members could not conceivably begin their lives again, as Hamlet's mother has done in marrying her late husband's brother. Hamlet is still in mourning clothes, is wholly fixated on the loss of his father, and is positively mortified and revolted by his mother's apparent indifference. In the play's first conversation between Hamlet and his newlywed parents, they chide him for his "obstinate condolement" for his father (1.2.93). They believe that "Hamlet's long mourning for his father is against not only the rule of nature, grace, or grace, but also heaven" (Hassel 612). Thinking of death makes Hamlet an unpleasant person for the newlywe... ...zlw4MBx3Rc3yxAK4i00QEjo#v=onepage&q=&f=false>. Gottschalk, Paul. "Hamlet and the Scanning of Revenge." Shakespeare Quarterly, 24.2 (1973): 155-170. JSTOR Database. 13 Nov. 2009 . Hassel, Chris, Jr. "Hamlet's 'Too, Too Solid Flesh." The Sixteenth Century Journal, 25.3 (1994): 609-622. JSTOR Database. 13 Nov. 2009 . Russell, John. "Dust and Divinity: Hamlet's Fractured World." Hamlet and Narcissus. Cranbury, N.J.: Associated University Presses, 1995. 39-50. Rpt. in Shakespearean Criticism. Ed. Michelle Lee. Vol. 92. Detroit: Gale, 2005. 39-50. Literature Resource Center. Gale. 14 Nov. 2009 . Shakespeare, William. Hamlet. The Bedford Introduction to Drama. Ed. Jacobus, Lee A. 6th ed. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2009. 340-393.
Monday, January 13, 2020
Vehicles had provided humans a means of transportation and vehicles had been a great help in building early civilizations such as of Mesopotamia with its chariots, Egypt with its reed boats, and China with its wheelbarrow. The old had been improved; the new had been invented; and the future had been conceptualized. These had been the cycle of vehicles through the change of time. Looking aheadÃ¢â¬ ¦ The Wheel and the Ship (3500 BC) The oldest wheel discovered was in Mesopotamia and is believed to be over fifty-five hundred years old. Rock drawings of ships were found in Egypt and are believed to have been drawn around 6000 BC. These thus proved that wheel and ships are known by man at that very early time and were used as a part of their trading and technology. Wheels are taught to had been conceptualized when Ã¢â¬Å"humans realized that heavy objects could be moved easier if something round, for example a fallen tree log, was placed under it and the object rolled over itÃ¢â¬ (Bellis, Ã¢â¬Å"The Invention of the WheelÃ¢â¬ ). First boats then were usually built of wood while animal skins, clay pots, and reeds had served as an alternative. The Wheelbarrow (181 Ã¢â¬â 234 AD) The wheelbarrow is believed to have originated from China and was invented by a general named Chuko Liang to transport supplies to injured soldiers. It is believed that Ã¢â¬Å"wheelbarrows do not exist in Europe before the 11th or 12th century (the earliest known Western depiction is in a window at Chartres Cathedral, dated around 1220 AD). Descriptions of the wheelbarrow in China refer to first century BC, and the oldest surviving picture, a frieze relief from a tomb-shrine in Szechuan province, dates from about 118 ADÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"WheelbarrowÃ¢â¬ ). The Early Triumphs to Fly (400 BC-1850s) Kite flying started by the Chinese had been the pioneer of man on how he could fly. Different thoughts as to how man could meet this objective had undergone. These included the experiment to imitate a bird by attaching feathers or light weight wood to arms which had been proven disastrous since human armsÃ¢â¬â¢ muscles are not like of birds and cannot move with a strength like of a bird. Other experiments though were not originally intended so as man could fly included the work of Hero of Alexandria on Aeolipile. Ã¢â¬Å"Hero mounted a sphere on top of a water kettle. A fire below the kettle turned the water into steam, and the gas traveled through pipes to the sphere. Two L-shaped tubes on opposite sides of the sphere allowed the gas to escape, which gave a thrust to the sphere that caused it to rotate. Aeolipile must be included in the history of vehicles because it gave the principle for engine created movementÃ¢â¬ (Bellis, Ã¢â¬Å"Early history of FlightÃ¢â¬ ). In the 1480s, with over 100 drawings that illustrated theories on bird and mechanical flight, Leonardo da Vinci had also entered this search to manÃ¢â¬â¢s mean to fly (Bellis, Ã¢â¬Å"Early history of FlightÃ¢â¬ ). LeonardoÃ¢â¬â¢s Ornithopter concept had been the basis to the invention of the modern day helicopter. In 1783, Jacques Etienne and Joseph Michel Montgolfier invented the first hot air balloon (Ã¢â¬Å"How Did We Learn to Fly Like the Birds? Ã¢â¬ ). Using the smoke from a fire to blow hot air into a silk bag that was attached to a basket, they had been able to fly aboard the hot air balloonsÃ¢â¬â¢ first passengers, a sheep, a rooster, and a duck. On November 21, 1783, the first ever successful manned flight took place sending Francois Laurent and Jean-Francois Pilatre de Rozier up in the air (Bellis, Ã¢â¬Å"Early history of FlightÃ¢â¬ ). Further studies then went on. In the 1850Ã¢â¬â¢s, George Cayley, the considered founder of Aerodynamics, had made his contribution through his gliders wherein a young boy had been the first to fly. The Submarine (1578 Ã¢â¬â 1620) Designs for underwater boats or submarines date back to the 1500s and ideas for underwater travel date back even further but only in the year 1578 did appear a record of a craft for underwater navigation. Ã¢â¬Å"William Bourne, a former Royal Navy gunner, designed a completely enclosed boat that could be submerged and rowed beneath the surface (Bellis, Ã¢â¬Å"History of the Submarine 2Ã¢â¬ ). BourneÃ¢â¬â¢s idea had never been implemented but a similar apparatus was launched in 1605 (Bellis, Ã¢â¬Å"History of the Submarine 2Ã¢â¬ ). The apparatus didnÃ¢â¬â¢t get farther as its designers did not considered the tenacity of underwater mud which caused the craft to stick in the river bottom in its first underwater trial. But in the year 1620, Cornelius Van Drebbel had invented the first Ã¢â¬Å"practicalÃ¢â¬ submarine which was a rowboat covered with greased leather (Bellis, Ã¢â¬Å"History of the Submarine 2Ã¢â¬ ). His submarine had successfully maneuvered at depths of 12 to 15 ft. below the surface of Thames River. He had then further made revisions of his first submarine and legends says that after repeated tests, King James I of England rode to one of his later models (Ã¢â¬Å"The Saga of the SubmarineÃ¢â¬ ). Despite success, DrebbelÃ¢â¬â¢s invention did not quickly amaze the British Navy that made submarine warfare infeasible during that time. Steam Powered Automobiles (1600 Ã¢â¬â 1700) Steam power had been known for the past centuries but it was only in the 1600Ã¢â¬â¢s where it had been in practical use. Ã¢â¬Å"Ferdinand Verbiest created a model steam carriage in 1678, that moved by using a principle that is used in the modern day turbine. In the 17th century the Dutch physicist, Christiaan Huygens built an engine that uses air pressure. About 1750, the French inventor Jacques de Vaucanson gave a demonstration of a carriage propelled by a large clockwork engine. The steam engine had then developed the motorized land transport by the 1760Ã¢â¬â¢sÃ¢â¬ (Brainard). The first built automobile is attributed to Nicolas Joseph Cugnot in the year 1769. He made his three wheeled steam driven tractor intending to help the French army to move its heavy artillery pieces in and around Paris (Brainard). His being the first had made also his automobile to be also the first to be involved in an automobile accident in 1771. Steamboat (1783 Ã¢â¬â 1787) After a century of steam power exploration used in automobiles, development of steam powered boats then took place. In 1783, the first practical steamboat was demonstrated by Marquis Claude Francois de Jouffroy dÃ¢â¬â¢Abbans Ã¢â¬â a paddle wheel steamboat. Ã¢â¬Å"The era of the steamboat then began in America in 1787 when John Fitch (1743-1798) made the first successful trial of a forty-five-foot steamboat on the Delaware River on August 22, 1787, in the presence of members of the Constitutional Convention. Fitch later built a larger vessel that carried passengers and freight between Philadelphia and Burlington, New Jersey. Ã¢â¬ (Bellis, Ã¢â¬Å"History of SteamboatsÃ¢â¬ ). Modern Bicycles (1790) The next notable improvement in the history of vehicles is the invention of modern day bicycles which is disputed on whether the invention of Pierre and Ernest Michaux were the first ever built or not. Ã¢â¬Å"Some history books states that Pierre and Ernest Michaux, the French father and son team of carriage-makers, invented the first bicycle during the 1860s. Historians now disagree and there is supporting evidence that the bicycle is already known before. However, historians all agree that Pierre and Ernest Michaux invent the modern bicycle pedal and cranks in 1861. Ã¢â¬ (Bellis, Ã¢â¬Å"Bicycle HistoryÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"Bicycle History in DebateÃ¢â¬ ). Steam Powered Locomotives (1801) Locomotives were designed first by Richard Trevithick but not originally for railroad tracks but for roads while George Stephenson is regarded as the inventor of the first steam locomotive engine for railroads. Ã¢â¬Å"Richard TrevithickÃ¢â¬â¢s invention is considered the first tramway locomotive, however, it was designed for a road, not for a railroad. Ã¢â¬ (Bellis, Ã¢â¬Å"Richard TrevithickÃ¢â¬ ). The Motorcycles (1867) The mechanical version of the bicycles had been born with the invention of motorcycles in 1867. Ã¢â¬Å"American, Sylvester Howard Roper (1823-1896) invented a two-cylinder, steam-engine motorcycle (powered by coal) in 1867. This can be considered the first motorcycle, if you allow your description of a motorcycle to include a steam engine. Ã¢â¬ (Bellis, Ã¢â¬Å"MotorcycleÃ¢â¬ ).
Saturday, January 4, 2020
The Importance of Being Earnest was one of the best comedy manner plays I have read thus far. The play was written by Oscar Wilde, which happened to be the best masterpiece he has ever written out of all four of his stage comedies. The Importance of Being Earnest was first published in 1899. This play was a self-parody and unreliably explanation on the dramatic farce genre for Wilde. This play is a comedy of manner during the Victorian Age. The Victorian Age was a period of peace and sensibility. The Importance of Being Earnest was an early trial in Victorian melodrama. This play was particularly known as a satire with a touch of sentimental comedy. This play was known for its worldly deliberately farce. The Victorian society dealt withÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Predominantly an earnest person. Their goal throughout this comedy was to live a life earnestly. During the 19th century, many people in the British society increasingly became deceitful in the lifestyle and they wanted to compete with earnestness. I felt that because many of the British were trying to settle and compromise, they were portrayed to be selfish, bitter, and deceitful liars. Overall, this was one of the biggest controversies that affect the Victorian Age. In the comedy, the two characters Jack Worthing and Algernon are showing the value of earnestness and were obsessed with the name. Jack Worthing was the reason for the confusion and misunderstanding between the names. Jack stayed in the country and in the city he would use the name Ernest. When I first read the play, I wondered why the name of the play was Ã¢â¬Å"EarnestÃ¢â¬ , instead of Ã¢â¬Å"ErnestÃ¢â¬ . After reading and researching, the name Ernest meant a lot to the Victorian society. Jack knew that many women in the modern Victorian age were obsessed over any man by the name Ernest because of what it stood for; honorable, loyal, trustworthy, and sincere of feelings. Jack was even considering getting re-baptized with the name Ernest. Needless to say, Jack played the character of a double-life. He was known for Jack in the country and Ernest in the city. Researchers claim that the British society didnÃ¢â¬â¢t allow one to live a double life. It was simply permitted. Additio nally, JackShow MoreRelatedThe Importance Of Being Earnest By Oscar Wilde707 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesWebsters dictionary defines earnest as Ã¢â¬Å"characterized by or proceeding from an intense and serious state of mind. Which can be considered a pun since thought this play we see the characters being more apathetic. The Importance of Being Earnest is the story of Jack Worthing is the main character and the protagonist of this play. He is a well of business man who lives in the country and is very well respected there. But Jack has a secret he lives another in the city of London where he claims to goRead MoreThe Importance Of Being Earnest By Oscar Wilde1750 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesHidden Symbols in The Importance of Being Earnest The Importance of Being Earnest written by Oscar Wilde takes place in 1895 and exposes the hypocritical social expectations of the end of the Victorian era. During the Victorian period, marriage was about protecting your resources and keeping socially unacceptable impulses under control. The play undeniable reveals and focuses satire around differences between the behaviors of the upper class and that of the lower class. Oscar Wilde uses comedic symbolismRead MoreThe Importance Of Being Earnest By Oscar Wilde913 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesmake them known. This concept has come to be the brick and mortar of the wry play The Importance of Being Earnest by Oscar Wilde The significance of the notion of being earnest is contradicted in the play, through WildeÃ¢â¬â¢s clever use of words, characters digression of societal normalcy, and triviality of Victorian concepts. Cynical character Algernon asserts that women of Victorian society reinforce the importance of orderly money as a type of social contract. On page 3, it is quickly established theRead MoreThe Importance Of Being Earnest By Oscar Wilde975 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe Importance of Being Earnest is a play written by Oscar Wilde about a man named Jack who lies about his identity and ends up creating huge confusion about who he really is. The biggest notion that appears throughout the play is about character. There are many instances where the characters of the play lie about their identities and pretend to be people they are not. Oscar Wilde does this throughout the play in order to explain how oneÃ¢â¬â¢s identity can be made up. One is not born with an identity;Read MoreThe Importance Of Being Earnest By Oscar Wilde773 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesIn the play by Oscar Wilde Ã¢â¬Å"The Importance of Being EarnestÃ¢â¬ , Wilde takes a comedic stance on a melodrama, portraying the duplicity of Victorian traditions and social values as the modernism of the twentieth century begins to emerge. The idea of the play revolves around its title of the characters discovering the importance of being earnest to their individual preferences. The author uses the traditional efforts of finding a marriage partner to illustrate the conflicting pressure of Victorian valuesRead MoreThe Importance Of Being Earnest By Oscar Wilde1293 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagescarrying yourself, many of which was not the must enjoyable of ways and lacked some fun that many need in their life. This forced many to split their Public life from the Private one. Written in the Victorian Era, the works of The importance of being earnest by Oscar Wilde, Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde by Robert Louis Stevenson ,and Frankenstein by Mary Shelley displays how the characters need to keep be kept their Private lives separate from their Public lives in order to fit into their strict VictorianRead MoreThe Importance Of Being Earnest By Oscar Wilde1318 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesSocial Status in Persuasion and The Importance of Being Earnest Social status refers to a person s position or importance within a society. I have done some research and have acquired information over the way social status is addressed in both the writings of Jane Austen and Oscar Wilde. In the novel Persuasion we can see how the characters go beyond their means to uphold their title and social value. In the play The Importance of Being Earnest we can see how the social rank and wealth of a personRead MoreThe Importance Of Being Earnest By Oscar Wilde1364 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIn order to fully understand the meaning of Ã¢â¬Å"The Importance of Being EarnestÃ¢â¬ and its importance in its time, one must look at Oscar WildeÃ¢â¬â¢s background in relation to the Victorian time period. Biography.com states that Wilde had a very social life, growing up among influential Victorians and intellectuals of the time. As he grew older and became a successful writer, he began engaging in homosexual affairs which was a crime during the 19th century. He e ventually started a relationship with AlfredRead MoreThe Importance Of Being Earnest By Oscar Wilde1382 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesappeared to be strict. The Importance of Being Earnest, by Oscar Wilde, a nineteenth century author who was one of the most acclaimed playwrights of his day, is a play set in the Victorian time period that demonstrates how trivial telling the truth was. Different characters throughout WildeÃ¢â¬â¢s play establish their dishonestly through hiding who they really are and pretending to be someone whom they are not. In an essay titled Ã¢â¬Å"From Ã¢â¬ËOscar WildeÃ¢â¬â¢s Game of Being Earnest,Ã¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ Tirthankar Bose describesRead MoreThe Importance Of Being Earnest By Oscar Wilde1243 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesexuberant nonconformist and controversial playwright, eminent author Oscar Wilde produced critically acclaimed literary works that defined the essence of late Victorian England. Posthumously recognized for his only novel The Picture of Dorian Gray and satiric comedy The Importance of Being Earnest, Wilde initially acquired criticism for his immoral and unconventional style of writing. Additionally, to his dismay, strife followed Wilde in his personal life as he was notoriously tried and incarcerated